The Jura, Scotland - Southern African branch.

Data capture and research notes. A work in progress.!!!

THE KEEROM DIARY (Namaqualand) 1861-1865.

of Agnes Eaglesim 1841?-1901? of Paisley, and
Patrick (Peter)Fletcher 1827-1897 of Jura, Scotland.

Annotations [in square brackets] by Neil Fletcher.


[This is a typescript of a diary given by the diary writers' grandson, Peter Fletcher of Zimbile Farm, Rhodesia, to archives in South Africa in January 1952.

He gave them to Dr P.J. van der Merwe who was in Rhodesia at that time researching aspects of Rhodesian history from an Afrikaner perspective. Peter asked van der Merwe to give the diaries to the S.A. archives, as they concerned matters before the advent of Rhodesia.

Photocopies of the diary pages were purchased by Owen Fletcher from the Western Cape Archives and Records Service in April 2012, from which this typescript was made. It is a sub-file to one of chronological biological material about Patrick and Agnes Fletcher elsewhere on the website.

The original is written in an accounts, or possibly a surveyor's book, and was referred to by Peter as "grandfather's diaries". Most probably he never read them, as they were almost certainly written by his grandmother Agnes - her daily records or journal of Keerom domestic matters. This is initially perplexing, until one realises that she writes much of the time as if for both of them, refers to him in particular sometimes, and to herself sometimes as A, or speaks of "my ....". I suppose this can be explained as a newlyweds' diary keeping project, kept by her, feeling her way, not only in married life, but in Namaqualand.

Peter referred to the diary in the plural. Whether there were more diaries/booklets dealing with other times of their lives, and if so where they might still be, - perhaps also given to SA archives at that time? - is yet a matter for discovery. As is the matter of how and when these, and very few other items from Patrick and Agnes, became dispersed to various of their children.

But before this.....
Patrick Fletcher came to the Cape Colony about 1850; there are references to dates several years earlier, rightly or wrongly. About 1854? he went to Namaqualand when copper mine speculation mania for a short time gripped the Colony
For about 20 years? he was active in the region in a number of ways associated with surveying, copper mining, and transport. Although he was employed there both by private interests and by government, there are some undetailed references suggesting he might also have made private investment in mining.

In January 1860 he married Agnes Eaglesim. The circumstances of their meeting are unknown; but there is a story that they knew each other in Scotland, and although she was much younger than he, they became engaged. And, a decade or so after he went to Africa they married in Cape Town.

In 1861, according to an inscription in a family Bible, a relative, Thomas Eaglesim, returned to Scotland from Cape Town.
Data recently come to light almost certainly identifies him as her brother. And this is re-inforced by references in the Diary to a letter from "Thomas"; and a "T"; and "my brother's birthday". Until recently it was not known if she had any siblings.

Patrick had been in the Cape Colony for about six years when they got married. Most of this time he had been in Namaqualand. Together they spent another eight or so years in that semi-desert region, before moving south and east in the Colony.
The Keerom Diary covers about five of their early marriage years.

Having survived mould and rats in a farm storeroom in Rhodesia for half a century "grandfather's diaries" were sent to Cape Town; back to where they had been long before.
On their journeying they appear never to have revealed their secrets, or if they did they were not interesting enough to have been remembered.
And then photocopying, scanning, emailing and the internet came along! And then someone, looking for material upon which to write, finds them and mentions them on the internet. They are quite understandably dismissed, in email correspondence, as being of purely domestic matters and of little interest:
"Killed a sheep, ....... goats went missing.... letters from home.... baby very sick ...killed a kapater ..." sort of stuff.

Indeed they are largely so. So why bother with them.....? Well, having already spent, and unable to retrieve, a goodly number of hours typing them out, some excuse for wasted time is undoubtedly called for.....
One can only say that a look at the family tree, first planted by the two from Scotland, gives hope that there might be one or two of its branches and twigs to whom this domestic trivia could be of some actual interest, or even of revelation: of how, for instance, a few kapaters may go a hundredfold progress or more through two Scots.Things like that....

But also, there are many names in the diary. Perhaps they too ate a few kapaters in their day, and left trees full of leaves; one or two of which, perhaps still green, might flutter on finding a family name here while also searching the internet.

But mostly because of the coincidental re-discovery of the diary's lost twin, in Miami, Florida: an old photograph of Keerom homestead from the 1860s. The remote and frozen beauty of its image seems warmed by the diary, and everything moves and comes to life.]

Apr 30 Begun to erect the Hardebest House where Jeannie was born.
[Agnes was nine months pregnant?
Nowhere in the diary is "the Hardebest House" and Keerom unequivocally linked. (check again) Peter had already been in Namaqualand for xx years, possibly in various other places, and much of that time in the veld surveying.
Subsequent generations of the family were told that their fathers or grandfathers were born on a farm called Keerom in Namaqualand, and gave the matter little thought, probably assuming the farm belonged to their ancestors. Keerom, if it was ever bought. (see later)] [ Hardebest House not stated to be on Keerom. See later about whitewashing etc.]
May 26 Misses Fryer paid a visit to Tyeboskraal.
[Taaiboskraal. About 15km or so east of Kamieskroon or Bowes Dorp. Were the Fletchers at Taaiboskraal pending the building of the "Hardebest" house? Were they still there when Jeannie was born?
Taai = tough; bos = bush; kraal = corral.]
July 30 Jeannie born.
[ She was conceived ca. Oct 1860. So they must have been married before Thomas Eaglesim returned "to his native land", as suggested by the inscription in the Bible presented to him in Jan 1861 in Cape Town.
Sept 21 Started for Cape Town
"Started for" is used throughout the diary as meaning "set out on a journey." But sometimes Agnes wrote it when Peter had set out alone; as if she was writing for him. Here, did she also set out with a three week old child?]
Oct 16 Arrived from town at railstation [?]
[Three weeks later. Who, what town, what railstation?] Are they staying outside of CT? Is the station Rondebosch? Had they already bought a house ("The Firs") there?Check railsystems 1861.
Oct 31 McKellar started for town after his visit to us.
[Two weeks after previous entry. The use of "town" and "us" suggests they both went to CT. ? They do not elsewhere refer to a dorp as a town.] [They were in Rondebosch? & McK visited them there and then started for central Cape Town?] [ McKellar is part of their daily life at Keerom for the entire length of the diary. Was he a relative? of hers? Was there another McK. also?] Link etc McK mention in Orange River letters. That he had received a letter from Janet? F. in Jura]
Jan 13 Started from Holifontein Clanwilliam for Namaqualand [Holofontein farm? Between Clanwilliam & Klaver?]
Feb 1 Arrived at Bowes Dorp
[It took three weeks. [?]] { "Bowesdorp is the original site of Kamieskroon, a few miles north of the present village, in a valley." G.R.}
Feb 3 Arrived at Springbok on horseback
[Where was Agnes and child? Check the handwriting here]
Feb10 Commenced surv. [survey] of Dorp
Dorp = village.
Springbok (formerly Springbokfontein) was the private village of the mining company.check.
See reference to the sale of plots, October 10th below.
Feb 18 Arrived at Rietfontein
Rietfontein west of Kamieskroon & south of Keerom?[N.F.]
Feb 19 Inspecting Bodabeep
First mention (?) in diary of mine inspection.
Bodabeep was/is a copper mine situated..... belonging to...etc
Feb 20 Plaatjes fontein do. [ditto]
Plaatjiesfontein? mine? etc....
Feb 24 At Springbok
Feb 25 Bushmanland
Must be a local "Bushmanland"?
March 2 Concordia unwel
He was at Concordia, and unwell?

Rhenish Mission. (Old missionary road?) Concordia was the first?(1853) of the Namaqualand copper mines, and has been described as the first/beginning of European mining in South Africa.

H.E.F. that he nearly went under on Concordia. He, or the company? Did he invest in it? Angus Somerville's letter 1950's re knowing some of the American investors still in Concordia.??
That Concordia was formerly called Tweefontein: that the two words are both used here in the diary. Why? Depending on P or A. writing it? Examine. There has been no mention of Keerom yet. Maybe they had not yet lived there? The "unwel" entry sounds more like a woman's. Maybe she was pregnant?Murray born 22 Aug 1863
See below: there are almost three months without entries immediately before the first mention of Keerom. Perhaps A. was travelling with P. to the various places mentioned. Perhaps she was living on Concordia or at Springbok and became friendly with the people mentioned in the diary. OKiep: That R,A. was?? prisoner there during the ABW. Esp. the style of Angus' letter references to him as being the guest? of ....
6 Back to Rietfontein 10 Bodabeep Meas [?] 13 Back to Rietfontein 28 arrived at Concordia with wagon [etc?]

May 1 Left for inspection on 13th returned
Left on 1st May for inspection, and returned on 13th May, ?
17 Started with Mr Anthry [?] for Kenhard
Mr L. Anthing. Magistrate/Civil Commissioner.(?)
See Smalberger pp71: "E.A. Judge, who arrived in 1861, to take up the post of Relieving Resident Magistrate from Anthing who was engaged upon a tour of the northern districts, ....."

Kenhardt is xxxkm from Springbok.
June 15 Arrived at Concordia fm Kenhard
So they were away a month?

There is a long break here.
Sept 7 Arrived at Keerom
[* First mention of Keerom. (keer = turn; om = about/round.) A farm about ?? km W-SW of Springbok near the old wagon transport route to Hondeklip Bay on the coast. The transport of copper for export was to become an important factor for a while in the lives of Patrick and others living at Keerom. See: * ]
Oct 10 Ludwig came.
[*First mention of George R. von Ludwig, - a surveyor.

* Was he a relative of two other von Ludwigs in SA history?

* At the first meeting of the South African Mining Company a Baron von Ludwig was elected chairman. (Smalberger, quoting xxxxx)
29th do. + 28th Springbok Sale
Smalberger pp 73: "it was decided to create a public village, and in 1862 Patrick Fletcher, a surveyor, laid out the town. An auction was held on October 28, 1862, when plots to the value of £6260 were sold."
Keerom Namaqualand Diary for the Year 1863

- January -
- February -

Sat. 7 Cameron came

- March -

Fr. 20 Sandy arrived from Clanwilliam
[First mention of Sandy, Peter's brother Alexander. Unfortunately we do not presently know if this was his arrival from Scotland, or whether he had been in S.A. for some time.

* Clanwilliam would not have been a place of landing from from Scotland. It might have been a place where a change of transport took place after arrival, and a journey there, from Cape Town.

* Clanwilliam was the name of a village xxxkm north of C.T., and also of a long stretch of the country to the north of that village. See map:xxx

* A number of references to Clanwilliam in the diary therefore are not specific about where P.F. or others had been or were engaged in work. For that matter, the word Namaqualand only once ?? check occurs in the diary. Bushmanland, Clanwilliam etc find.

* We do know that Alexander Fletcher worked on the Messelpad in 186? for he is detailed in PcP's report.
* He is also mentioned on the sheet of his mother's poem, The Battle of the Alma, in 18xx. But check was he back in Scotland?
* for: See ex Dawn Coburn: his presence at the 18?? census in Scotland.]
- April -
- May -
- June -
8th Von Ludwig and self went to Spectacle to survey for Grace
[* "and self": it would seem PcP is the writer; but it is perhaps
likely it was Agnes writing on his behalf. It occurs elsewhere in the diary.]

* {A Mr Grace had the first shop in Hondeklip Bay.
(Doesn.t seem to fit, but who knows?) G.R. }

* {Spectakel is a pass down the escarpment west of Springbok G.R.}

* [Spectakel copper mine: Phillips & King otained a lease to work it in 1853. .... By 1863 it was the largest village in Namaqualand and its population reached about 600. See Smalberger.]

[An old anecdote concerning the name of this pass and
mine is worth repeating:
On 25 Aug. 1685 a great number, under the command of
Simon van der Stel, Governor of the Cape, set out to the
north on an expedition of discovery lasting till 26 Jan 1686.
They went to find out about the so-called Copper Mountain
which had been heard about through contact with the black
tribes of that region.(Namaqualand).
At an escarpment ".... waar daar 'n indrukwekkende gesig na
die seckant te sien is, wat volgens die oorlewering
Simon van der Stel op sy reis na die Koperberge sou genoop
het om uit te roep : Wat 'n spektakel (gesig)!"][Source: etc]
F 12 Went from Spec to Springbok sent 30 diagrams duplicate of [data missing here get...]
Springbok old plan of do. + plan of Commonage.
M 15 Went from Keerom to Spec
F 19 Went from Spec to Springbok. sent letter to Steytler [?] for supplies & enclosed a bill of £35
Sat. 20 Home to Keerom Vi[?] Ad. Kotz[]
* First mention of Keerom as "home".

* Could the very first mention, (7th Sept. 1862 above), ("arrived at Keerom") suggest an arrival at a place not yet "home"? But a place where those now returning from a week's tour of work might feel it had after nine months become home? * It is perhaps significant also(? check)that this year's entries are headed "Keerom Namaqualand Diary for the Year 1863", perhaps suggesting that prior entries were not of Keerom.
M 22 Sowing Rye etc
T 23 '' '' ''
Joseph went for landau [?] to Twefontein
[* "meanwhile the"Concordia Consortium"... finding rich deposits... at Tweefontein later called Concordia....." Smalberger pp 55.

* Concordia has already been referred to several times, above. Why a change to Tweefontein? Is it in the same hand?

* In a letter from their youngest son, Angus, to his older brother Tom, in 1951, Angus writes:"I think I told Rory [their brother] that I know the American company that now owns and works the copper mine that used to belong to father.
They have made a lot of money".
In Smalberger pp: "quote Concordia final details..."

* Letter H.E.F. to N.F. 1997: "The Concordia copper mine, not far from Springbok, was where P.F. nearly ruined himself.
It was a mine which later produced a lot of copper but I think PF
must have gone in with insufficient capital."

* [Joseph. Employee??]

* landau: "a four wheeled carriage with a cover that can be opened and closed at will". [Maybe this refers to the two wheeled cart with a cover, in the old photo. What about "buckboard?"

Thu 26 Sent Harry to Springbok with letters plan[?] of Lens[?] [/] for Landskey[?] &[?] section of shaft of encroach[t?] for Mr Wild, letter??
[See?? John Wild & Phillips & King in Smalberger pp94] [Harry: Employee??]
[new page] - June - [these dates/days are incorrect?]
Thu 26 letter to Steyh[?]ler for supplies " " " to McGibbon for seeds enclosing 20/-

Fr 27 Joseph returned with landau from Tweefontein 2/6 Kobus sent with letter to meet post with a letter to Landsbery[?]
[First mention of Kobus? Seems to have been paid 6/- per week. cf. Peter's brother Alexander was paid ?/week plus rations as an overseer on the Messelpad in 1866?]
Sat Kobus returned, paid him 8[/-?]
rode over to Kekokies Torbet [?] came back with me to Keerom
Sun Sandy & Von Ludwig took the mare to Keko
[Check: first mention of Kekokies. On PcP's Messelpad drawing Kekokies is unspecifically indicated on the old copper road West of Keerom, as Koornhuis was to the East. So it would have been on the main road of the day to Hondeklip Bay. See link Tony Grogan that Kekokies as a placename/farmsite? did not survive. But see also his mention of Kekokies mountain. Also check that Kekokies was a company farm - maybe the same co as PcP was engaged? with at this time. It seems to have been a source of meat and had wainright/blacksmith facility. Check HEF letters re blacksmith W? of Keerom. The main names associated with it : .....]

{"Kekokies: see 1865 in my Guide to Research: Strangely enough, Hall did not see the Sandveld section on the Hondeklip Bay road as presenting any great difficulty, at least not when compared with the mountain sections. He concurred with Fletcher that the existing road near Kekokies traversed such rugged and steep terrain that no meaningful improvement was possible, and that a deviation to a new route via Tiger Kloof gave the most promise." G.R.}
Mon Sowing & cc[?]
Tue Went from Keerom to Springbok - sowing
- July -
Wed 1 Mr Guaid [sp?] Roman Catholic clergyman here. Sowing
Thu 2 Home to Keerom - sowing raining during the night
?/& Agnes?
Fri 3 Sowing - Kobus 6[/-]
Sat 4 Went to [Hondeklip] Bay for supplies. Von L went over to Windkraal [where?]
The shop in HB, Mr xxx.
Sun 5 Writing home letters - Mr & Mrs Hilder arrived about 4 oclock -
returned from bay about 8 oclock.
Whoever went to the bay was away overnight.
Mon 6 Von L came home - The Hilders left after breakfast - planted a pear tree before the house. Sana sick - Kobus not here.
Tues 7 Sowing. Kobus came.
Wed Despached harry with letters for post - Torbet Hunt & van Reenen here
In Smallberger, pp34: "The Government had only shortly before stated in a reply to J.H.van Reenen that it was not in the power of the Government to ......'make any such grant or lease of land for the purpose of mining or otherwise, as you propose.' ". [Detail more.... Dates OK for this matter?] Torbert Hunt: nothing in Smalberger. Search.
Paid to Hill for the cow[?] 21[/-] Thus9 Harry came back at supper time - sowing rain in the night time
Fri 10 Rainy
Sat 11 Kobus paid - Went to Agenbags[?] & bought 6 bucks. 6[/- Kobus?] Nannel brought over letters at night. Sowing.
[* First mention of Agenbag family.

] {* Smalberger pp 68. "Phillips & King, in order to ensure the transport of their ores to the coast, systematically bought up almost all the farms on route to Hondeklip Bay. This also put them in a position where they could 'starve' out their only serious rivals, the Namaqua Mining Company. In 1855, John Blades Currey was appointed as manager of the latter concern specifically to try and organise the transport of their ore to the coast. This he was able to accomplish by obtaining outspan rights on the farm Kookfontein, owned by a certain Jan Agenbag, although Agenbag refused to enter into a written contract."}

[One of the delights of reading early accounts of this region concern old Agenbag. A short scene written by J.B. Currey of his meeting with Agenbag and his daughter is an engaging Namaqualand idyll.]
Sun 12 Left on horseback for Bay - Jeanie who has been suffering from
diarhea since the beginning of this month is much worse today.
- to be also sick
Mon 13 Von L & Harry started for hay. - Jeanie very unwell - pulse very quick
feverish. Sowing
Tu 14 Jeanie rather better in the morning - sat up a little & talked & played.
Afternoon worse - very high fever. Sowing
Wed 15 Jeanie rather better - Torbet here - Wrote to the Dr. Rain all day.
No ploughing. Jeanie worse in the evening.
Thurs 16 Jeanie no fever today - better, but very feverish [sic?] had to carry
her about almost all day. Harry arrived with cart [?] from bay - brought
bag coffee box tea - cask oatmeal 10 lbs meat from Keko.
Fr 17 Jeanie continuing better but no attempt to walk very restless - Old Kobus
came from Springbok
Sat 18 Rain all day. Sandy built up the dam [? /door?] - Gave Jeanie senna in the
morning - she is much better. Paid Kobus 6[/-]
Sun 19 Rain all day
Mon 20 Cart came from the Bay with supplies - returned to Keerom and brought
Dr B[ow?] to see the children. [sic. plural] - Sowing
Tues21 Dr B left . - Ploughing
"Dr. B"? search Enter material ex Smalb. re doctor in Springbok
Wed 22 Started for Bay on horseback. - Ploughing
Thurs 23 Harry sick. A.[gnes] not well
Frid 24 Harry not better. A. very sick. Betje [] ill [Peter writing this?]
Sat 25 Harry rather better went to Kekokies to get the mules shod,
and bring the rest of the goods. A. & B. still very ill.
Jan Agenbag came in the forenoon - arrived from bay about
sundown Ploughing Paid Kobus 6[/-]
Sun 26 Went with Agenbag to see Jones' sheep - Carmen [?] came from Spectakle
Mr Nicholson -Johnny[?] & Miss Shaw (the first young lady visitor we have
had at Keerom) arrived tonight
[Surely this implies they had not been at Keerom very long??]
A not much better.
Tue 28 Started for Springbok early in the morning. Nicholsons also
left about 7 oclock. A & B much better.
Wed 29 Sandy unwell
Thu30 Old Rachel came[?] arrived from Springbok with Rich
Rich = Richard etc Hall????? etc etc
Jeannies birthday. [Two years old]
Fri 31 Rich left.

- August 1863 -

Sat 1
Sun 2 Writing letters, sent home [?/horse?] for box
Mon 3 Started for bay. Cart turned back as the mule got
crippled. Kobus came
Nicholson, Johny[?] & Miss Shaw arrived from Springbok.
Sandy no better.
Tue 4 Nicholsons left. Hunt & Jan Agenbag here
Wed 5 Finished ploughing. Paid Kobus 3/-
[for half a week? Remain at Keerom?]
Thur6 Torbet here. Sandy rather better
Fri 7 Post [?] left for Bay.
Sat 8 Van Zyl (Klaas)[?] here.
*[Van Zyl a common S.A. name but?:]
* Smalberger pp94: "The farm Lelykepad, alias Nababeep, was granted to
one Pieter van Zyl in 1850. It was purchased jointly by Phillips & King and
John Wild in 1852 for the sum of £.1000.

Sun 9
Mon 10 Sowing all day - Sandy in the garden - Joseph let the cattle
several times in the land.
Are the Fletchers gradually becoming Afrikaners?
At school you are told "Tyde, Wyse, Plek," i.e. "Time, Manner, Place,"
and here you have it - "several times" (Manner) "in the land" (Plek), but
sounding a bit odd in Scottish.
Tue11 Cart arrived from bay box of trees and seed from Cape Town
Hondeklip bay. Box of trees for transplanting.
Wed 12 Preparing for the clergyman who arrived about 4 oclock with his family.
A very pleasant visit
Thur13 Clergyman left forenoon.
Fri 14 Harry started for Bay. Sandy busy in the garden. [Planting the trees?]
Joseph started for Vogelklip for bull
Sat 15 Heavy rain tonight
Sun 16 Raining. I [?] [???????] fm bay Bay?] from Mrs Archer for coffee in payment
of the bread[?] - gave 2 lbs
Mon 17
Tue18 Cart came from bay
Wed 19 Ludwig & Innes [?] came fm bay got bull fm Vogelklip [Find Vogelklip]
Thu 20 Innes went away
Fri 21 Agnes ill [So PcP is still author of the journal?]
Sat 22 baby born 10 P.M.
* [1863? check]
Murray Fletcher.
* [Only referred to as "Baby" in the diary.
*Check against "MINNY b. 21 Aug 1862" in the Springbok
24 Jan 1866 Nuwe Kerk christening data from Elize Kruger.]

* Married Harrison? .Later married Mainwaring in Bulawayo. UK pre-WW1.
* Children.
* Eventually in USA??
Sun 23 Sent for Dr per[?] Hary[?]. the Dr here 9 hours after H left
Mon 24 Dr went away
Tue 25 Torbet here on his way to Springbok. Old Archer here.
Bull with black& white C [.?...]

Wed 26 Rachal [?] went to bay got mudrye [?] from Keko.
Torbet started for Springbok
Got 3 sheep from Floris Kotzer [? Kotzee?] & 2 from
james archer. Killed of the sheep at night.[check txt]

Thur 27 3 farmers from Brunkop (Coetzees) Fri 28
Sat 29 I. [J.?] Shaw fm Springbok forby[?] went Windkraal[?] to see
hunt [?]. The letter for Mc
Sun 30 Got 2 sheep from Vanrennan [?] sent diagram of Graces [aven with???]
Mon 31 Mules in the lands.

--- September ---

Tue 1 Von Ludwig & self started for Springbok.
Killed a sheep at night
Wed 2 The big ox & three cows in the garden last night
Rachel & Jannury [??] here on way home. Katty slept
all day in the sluit behind the stables
Thur 3 Mason from Riethuis here
Fri 4th The cattle in the lands this morning. Joseph had his
breakfast early so that he might look after the cattle
but instead of going at once he sent Katie & she
found them & the the bucks in the land - Katie was
telling a fib. Only three cows were in for a minute.
Sat 5th Arrived home from Springbok
Sun 6 Katie naughty kids in the garden.
Mon 7 Left for the bay. killed a sheep. Katie naughty again.
Kid were just now in the garden.
"Time", "Place"!. "Net nou in die tuin..."?
Tue 8 Came from Bay at 7 pm had a very disagreeable ride.
[Easter?ly?] Winds[?] Ludwig started for Springbok for Picnick. [?]
Wed 9 At home all day. Bull with [?] nanie [?]
Thur 10 Ludwig came home. Letter.
[Keerom was "home" to Ludwig also?]
Fri 11 Jan Agenberg here. Preparing to start.
Sat 12 Killed a sheep. Preparing all day
Sun 13 Read a sermon in the forenoon.
Mrs{?] Shaw here from Kekokies. [A link Shaw-Keko?]
Mon 14 Started for Springbok en route to Pella [?]
Tue 15 Betje having occasion this morning to look in Sana's
[?] box found a pipe & tobacco in the bottom of it. She
denied all knowledge of it, but while Betje came to call me
she went out and has not been seen since.
Sandy went to look for her but could not get her.
Scoty [?] here.
Wed 16 Sana came home about dark, her clothes all torn from
creeping in the bushes.
Thur 17 Hunt here. Harry came with the cart, brought the post. Rain.
Frid 18 Killed a sheep. Found the turkey's nest, 11 eggs.
Dr & Mrs Morris came about 4 o'clock.
Sandy planting pumpkins & water melons. Calves [?] in the land.
Sat 19 Dr & Mrs Morris left. Sana very lazy, cannot get her to take
an interest in her work, always running after Joseph & Harry, not
the least ashamed of her bad conduct this week.
[Sana - Joseph - Harry local workers?]
Sun 20 Read a sermon. Baby in the garden for the first time.
Mon 21 Sana behaving better, Katie very good.
Jeanie says she is sorry Papa [?] run away in bushland [?]
What can this mean!?
What could Jeannie have recently overheard?
That one of the people around the house (Sana) had run away
and been creeping about the bush.
That Papa had gone away, creeping around Bushmanland? (Pella?)
Something she must have heard about him doing as much as she
might have heard it about Sana or Betje, etc.
C[?]os mending the hedge. V.L [Close?] at work. Rain.
Tue 22 After dinner V.L & Sandy started on horseback to attend
Mrs Morris's service at Kekokies but met the Dr Bobby [O?]rpen,
Mr[s?] Field [?] & Ashon [??] in the area [oxen?] cart & turned back
with them. Mr[s?] M came a couple of hours afterwards
Wed 23 Dr & party left [ ] our cart & mules, to help the Dr on as one of
his horses was sick. Mrs[?]Morris foraging in the garden.
Henrique crept through the hole of the fowl house a killed a chicken.
Kids eat the [bananas??] in the garden. Calves in the little land.
How long would it take a banana[?] from planting to be eaten. Maybe
kids were eating the leaves?
Thur 24 Killed a sheep. Henrique Agenberg here got some seeds. Harry returned
with cart lost the medicine on the road - brought the post, no letters.
Katie sleeping, calves in the little land. Cos says the little land is now good
for nothing, cattle and horses in it almost every day.
Fr 25 Harry went back to seek the medicine, found the bottle broken, nothing in it.
Bought three sheep from a hottentot named Damond[/e?]. £1-5 [15/-?? check]
Dugald McKellar came.
Research Dugald, Peter? Mckellar etc. check orange river letter
Old Kos all day after the horses, found them at Canariesfontein.
Sat 26 Horses in the lands Calves in the little land. Harry at Kekokies
with the cart to fetch V.L.'s camera, & the fowls Dugald brought.
[ NB the camera!!!!!!!!!!!!. That took the old photograph?]
Sun 27 Horses again in the lands. Sandy Dugald & von L went to the
top of the hill behind the house.
Might they have taken a photograph?
Boy came to fetch the horse Dugald got from Rich.
[Was Richard Hall? at Kekokies?]
Horses again in the land 2nd time today, & Harry doing
nothing else but looking after them. Read a sermon. [That should fix him!]
Mon 28 Killed a sheep. Rain tonight. Calves twice in the little land.
Tue 29 Rain. von L finished Springbok plan [XX] Took 12 bottles out of B, cask.
Wed 30 Calves in little land. Baby not very well.
--- October ----
Thurs 1 Dugald & Sandy up at the lands.
[Dugald more than just a passing visitor?]
Katie missing all day, sleeping in the bush.
Fri 2 Horses & calves in little land.
Baby not well. Gave her oil. [NB = girl]
Sat 3 Killed a sheep weighed 59 lbs. Sowing pumpkins.
Dugald & von L. out shooting.
Sun 4 Seventy eight sheep from Shaw[?] Springbok.
Scoty? brought our letters & papers - letter from Pella
[Peter?] still away at Pella?.
Mon 5 Boy who brought the sheep started with our letters for Springbok.
Set both turkeys 13 eggs each. Joseph herding the sheep & bucks.
Harry the cattle & horses he let them twice in the land.[Plek!]
Cos {Cas?] says they have eaten it very much.
Baby unwell, gave her oil.
Tue 6 Came home from Pella.
Wed 7 Sana & Katie ran away.
[One is as bad as the other! It is a pity the diary gives no details of the ages, relationships and backgrounds of the considerable number of people living or employed at Keerom in one way or another. Sculley and other writers at the time are in agreement as to their ......etc.]
Torbet here. Began Port [?] cask.
Thur 8 Joseph brought back Sana & Katie.
They ran away together?/at the same time. Perhaps for
the same reason or under a similar impulse.
Same age/status/sisters.
Killed a sheep.
Fri9 [Games?/Gemms] here.
Sat 10 Horses in land. Binding plan of Springbok.
[Who would most likely be doing the map-binding?]
Sun 11 Read a sermon. Went to the top of the rock.
[The granite rock behind the house].
Mon 12 Started with Von L. & Dugald for Messklip.
Sandy put up the flag on the rock.
Tue 13 Katie naughty. Slept all day in the bushes.
Sandy planting pumpkins.
Nicholson, Nighingale, A[?] Kennedy, & R Archer here.
6 bottles from B cask.
Wed 14 Killed a sheep. Nicholsons left.
Katie naughty. Sandy thrashed her.
Thur 15 One sheep missing. Torbet here. Joseph got the sheep
among Kekokies sheep.
[So Kekokies is likely adjoining...] Fri 16 Jan Prince here.
Sat 17 Sheep ran away last night. Joseph seeking them.
Kos after the cattle & bucks. Raining.
Returned from Springbok races, with Dugald.
Home letters received. Letter from Peter McKellar
Sun 18 At home all day. Went up to the lands. Kid died.
Mon 19 Killed a sheep. Joseph left for Messklip with cart for Von L
& to Enndorn [?] for ox.
Dugald went to take charge of Torbet's shearers.
Nicholson, Ashon [?] Bobby & Manel [?] arrived on the
way home. Goods came from Findlay.
Tue 20 Nicholsons left. Von L arrived from Messklip.
Harry sore foot. Man from Mrs van Dyk for plants.
Sent letters to Findlay, Stetyler, Argus [newspaper??/ Angus?check]
Wed 21 Putting up new pump. looking over letters.
[What sort of pump? Putting it "up" might suggest it was a
windmill-driven reciprocating rod pump, for water: "windpomp", Afrik.) Check.]
Thur 22 Von L & self started for Buffels river. [self=PcP surely]
Nanny [goat?]last night in garden. Joseph returned from Endorn with ox.
Post. letter from Hex River, & Clanwilliam D.C. [District Commissioner]
Fri 23 Covering the [pits?]
Sat 24 Killed a sheep.
Shaw from Springbok here brought letter from Mr Wild [?]
Sun 25 Mannel here. - Sandy & Dugald up at the lands
Mon 26 Sandy, Kos, & Sana began to cut the forage.
Two men came from Kamagas in the afternoon. Very hot.
Tues 27 Shearing. Sandy at it till dinner time.
Harry away all day with the horses. Coffee.
Wed 28 Raining a little this morning. Rained all day - some very
heavy showers. No shearing -
Maybe the windmill was a windmill ("windmeule") after all.
But if it was for grinding wheat, was it actually wind-driven?
And why call it a pump? Needs research.
Dugald came home after breakfast - Sandy & he over at
Kekokies in the evening.
Katie naughty. sandy wrote to Ryneveld. I wrote to F. Fryer.
4 bars soap, 1 pack linen thread, 1 reel cotton, 2 bottles salad oil
from Kekokies
Thur 29 Rain all day. Dugald at home. Kamagas men grinding corn, horses
calves in the land. Dugald at Keko, brought letters from bay
Fri 30 Still raining. Dam very large. Kamagas men braing skins [afrik].
{Not braaing (barbecue) but surely "breing" (dressing or curing
skins to make them soft). G.R.}
[Kept the spelling of the diary. Link breing at Zimbile, Rhodesia]
Cleared up this afternoon, men working in the garden, Pigs in the
garden, calves & horses in land.
Thrashed Katie.
Planting pumpkins.
Sat 31 Fine day.- Men reaping all day. Killed a sheep. Sandy working in the
garden all day.
Baking Dugald brought post from Keko late - two letters from Cape Town.
November 1863

Sun 1 Mannel, wagonmaker here. - Man from Komagas seeking work.
Turkeys came out (Ludwigs) [i.e.hatched] Mon 2 Komagas men went away paid Clas Cloete £7.6 [7/6?]
Paul Booys to be paid 7/6 when he comes back. Pigs at the carrots.
Thrashed Katie.
Nightingale here. Sandy, Cos, & harry Binding [the wheat?]
Tue 3 Nightingale went away. Binding. Geese in the garden.
Sandy thrashed Katie.
Wed 4 Finished binding. Pigs at the carrots. Sandy thrashed Katie. Baking.
Ghert Prince here with ashes[?] for soap [?]
{"Probable. Ashes were used to make soap, and ashes from some
sorts of wood would have been better than others." G.R.}
[Don't remember this detail from childhood, when it was made with
fat/oil from ostriches; and the feathers were for dusters. They often had
small lice? in them. ]
Thur 5 Sandy & Cos working in the garden. Man from Mrs Van Dyk for plants.
Fri 6 Thunder showers till midday. - Torbet & Mr[?] Auley [?] here.
Sat 7 Killed a sheep. Peter & Von L return from Buffels river
Sun 8 Read a sermon. De Pass here. Mannel here.
Mon 9 Post arrived, no letters. Boy from Windkraal for vegetables.
[suggests Windkraal not very far away]
Raining last night & all forenoon - Began to cook soap.
Peter unwell - fever.
[Check Thurs 22 last "self" to Buffels river. Now Sat Peter returns Buffels, and today Peter unwell. But if Peter was away all this time did she thrash Katie on Mon 2, as she does not credit/(iscredit?) Sandy on that occasion.]

{"Poor Katie does seem to have had many thrashings!!" G.R.}
[Yes. It would be interesting to have some comment from people with a long history in that region. I know from my own experience of farms in the Swaartland in the 1950s that occasionally casual punishment was handed out, and taken, as readily as the dop.]
Tue 10 Peter very ill all last night & today - pulse over 100 - better tonight Cutting corn.
Wed 11 Peter much better. Shearing all day. Katie away all day.
Thur 12 Very hot day. Mrs Judge's baby born. Shearing. Writing letters.
[?? "A.E. Judge, who arrived in 1861, in order to take up the
post of Relieving Magistrate from Anthing..... " Smallberger pp71 and many other pp]
Fri 13 Torbet here. Van Geenan [?] & De Pass here. Went over to Kekokies
Mr[?]Wild & Mr[?] Morris arrived from Springbok.
Sat 14 Mr W & Mr M left
Sun 15 Read a sermon. Mrs Shaw here.
Mon 16 Finshed cutting forage. Beukes wagon brought part of the wood from Mr P. Harry left for S.B. with letters for Mr Judge & Messkip [?]
Mr Beukes. See HEF letter, etc etc Smalberger? etc?
Tue 17 Zonney [??] Van Zyl here. [Search]
Wed 18 Hosin[?] here brought the remainder of the wood with his wagon
& beer[?]
Harry returned from S.B. brought letters from Judge,? Welby
- Hardnett inspections fixed for 5th Dec -
Torbet here from the Bay brought letter from Mrs Nicholson
& Mr Wild. coffee
Thur 19 Soap finished. Took the wagon [sic?] off the long wagon.
{Would they have taken the wagon bed off the wagon? G.R.}

[Read original again.] [Perhaps it had something to do with beds for humans, not the wooden waggonbed itself, which in my childhood experience was not solid but lengths of rough plank lying along its length, and ....
Perhaps the wagon was being fixed up for the forthcoming trip
to the Orange River mouth.
August Smarts son brought bottle honey - gave panikin[?] coffee
for it.
Katie who was gone all yesterday was found today.
Fri 20 [???] been here[??] brought[?] bottle honey gave him[?][?] coffee[?]
Sandy working all day on the wagon.
Sat 21 Killed a sheep. The wagon brought down 2 loads of forage 800 sheaves.
Started harry on pony to springbok with letter to the D.C. Clanwilliam.
[.C. = District Commissioner?]
{"D.C could also have been Divisional Council. I see that in 1870 Fletcher
refers in his report to "the new Namaqualand Divisional Council"
(See my Guide to Research), and before that they would have fallen under
Clanwilliam. Mention previously in diary of correspondence with Clanwilliam". G.R.}
Got 2 loads of forage.
Sun 22 Mr Auley here. Old August here. Jan Prince here brought ashes.
Mon 23 Old August left. Binding forage
Tue 24 Harry returned from Springbok bringing post - English mail,
Mrs Collier, & Husband along with him. They left after breakfast.
Sent feathers to Mrs Noble[?]
Cart went to Kekokies to get the bands[?]shortened.
The bands(?) referred to could be the iron band (or tyre!)around the
circumference of the wooden wheel of a wagon. They occasionally became a
loose fit on the wheel,or worn out on the stony roads, and were refitted.
A short piece of metal was removing from them, reducing their circumference.
A blacksmith then joined the metal into a closed ring again by heating the two
ends, which overlapped each other slightly, in a forge until white hot and
almost melting. They were then quickly withdrawn from the fire and the two ends
were fused together by heavy stamping. Fine sand was employed in this process,
as a flux, as are other materials and inert gas gas used in modern welding methods.
The now shortened rim had then to be heated the whole way round, expanding it
so that it could be pressed while hot into place on the wheel. As it cooled it
tightened itself against the wood, holding everything in place again.
An experienced wainwright at Kekokies was noboubt kept busy near the rocky old
wagon road to Hondeklip bay.
Wed 25 Raining. Put on the soap. Went over to Kekokies.
Thur 26 Started with Von L in the cart for Springbok.
Fri 27 Sandy & Kos brought down three loads of forage.
Sat 28 Killed a sheep.
Returned home about 2 oclock this morning. left Springbok
5 oclock last night. Old Archer here.
[A nine hour journey. Get distances etc the way would have been on the old road across the hills?]
Sun 29 Archer left. Old Kos sick.
Mon 30 Preparing to start - sent Charlie to Keko to be shod.
Charlie a horse? - being prepared to go on the upcoming trip
to the mouth of the Orange River.
Torbet & Mason (Strandfontein) here for dinner.
Started Von L with the cart for the Hardenett.
Joseph lost the bucks suspect they are stolen.
the Hardenett. The cart.
December Tues 1 started early on Charlie for the Hardenett.
Peter was on Charlie? Check against source for a week each way
Sandy & Joseph went on horseback to seek the bucks. Got them
all right at Kekokies.
Sana away all day in the bush. Mr Carner [?] came tonight. Raining.
Wed2 Raining in the morning. Carner here all day. Sandy seeking Sana.
Kos better.
Thur 3 Sent Joseph on Sana's spoor - Kos taking care of the cattle.
Carner left after breakfast. Joseph found the remains of the lost
Joseph could not catch Sana. She came near the house tonight & Sandy
went up & got her.
Fri 4 Old Kos sick again. Sana quite weak & useless.
Sat 5 Killed a sheep. Kos better. Sandy, Kos & Sana packing the forage
in the loft.
Kos little stick tobaco 10 muids corn at Keko potatoes &c[?] from Stellyer[?]
"Various large measures of capacity. From the Latin modius. Conceptually, the muid was originally a wagon load.
In Cape Colony, South Africa, 17th - 19th century, a unit of capacity,
about 2¾ imperial bushels, about 100 liters. It was abolished by Act 11 of
1858, but it continued in use as a synonym for 3 bushels, which was legal
because that was a multiple of an authorized unit. In addition, in some areas
it was defined as a weight of 200 pounds avoirdupois.
Alfred J. Martin. Up-to-date Tables of Imperial, Metric, Indian and Colonial
Weights and Measures London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1904. Pages 61 & 6"
Sun 6 At home all day [P is still at Hardenett??] No one here except Manuel drunk.
Sandy & D. stooking [?] at the lands, some of Torbets troop[?] cattle in them.
[So Torbet maybe a neighbour?]
Katie very good all last week. [Amazing what a week of thrashing will do]
[Stooking: A stook (also called a cock or a shock) was a collection of
sheaves of wheat etc., or loose stalks of maize, packed standing
with their heads together so as to shed rain: a sort of "self-thatching".
The reaping was usually by hand, and the stooks were separate rounded small
units, providing adequate movement of air to assist drying of the grain.
They were usually formed in rows, down which a wagon could later be loaded
by hand. Often stooking was a way of reaping a few weeks earlier than normal.
The grain would continue drying in the stook; meanwhile land between the rows
could be ploughed or harrowed for replanting before it became drier/wetter.]
Mon 7 Sandy. Kos & Joseph brought wood in the wagon. Kos working in the garden.
Sandy making S.B. [?] stable door. Torbet & Young Grace here.
The tame sheep sick.
{ "tame sheep": often if the mother had died and the lamb had to be fed by hand and looked after at the house, it would remain in that vicinity, or in the house, after growing up. Referred to as "mak skaap" or whatever. G.R.}
Tue 8 Torbets cattle in the lands - big ox and bull also. Cutting rye.
Sandy shot a klipbuck lamb. [ = klipspringer?]
Wed 9 Sheep still sick. Very hot day. Writing letter home.
Thu 10 Thundery weather. Gave Kos little stick tobaco. Sana & Katie
ran away about dark.
Fri 11 Joseph & Kos got up in the night & found Sana & Joseph then
went in search of Katie, & Sana gave Old Kos the slip & was off.
Joseph secured Katie & has now gone on Sanas spoor.
Sandy & Kos started with wagon to fetch the corn from the floor.
Joseph brought Sana back from Wilde paarde hoek.
Wildeperdhoek? Photo map etc
Sat 12 Killed a sheep. Cutting all day. Soap finished. Post. Killed pet sheep.
Sun 13 Returned from Hardeveld [?]
Peter. How long away?
Mon 14 Cutting corn
Tue 15 Cutting
Wed 16 Cutting?
Thur 17 Fri 18 Capt Bow & Torbet here. Started for Modderfontein after dinner.
Hermanus Phisasee[?]here. Killed a sheep.
Sat 19 Hermanus here all day. Still cutting. Making out accounts.
Sun 20 Hermanus left after breakfast
Mon 21 Kobus & Andrius here to cut corn - worked half a day
Tue 22 Kobus & Andrius here cutting corn
Wed 23 Cutting corn.
Sandy Von L and Dugald went out at night to hunt porcupines.
Thur 24 Killed a sheep
Fri 25 Christmas. Mr Auley here.
Sat 26 Went over to Keko to see Steele.
Rented Keerom for a year £10.
{ "rented Keerom for a year".Where on earth does this fit in??? G.R.}

[Yes, this was unexpected. Does it mean they never bought Keerom
in the first place? Annelize Erasmus wrote that in 1870 Theunis Kotze bought Keerom from "an Englishman" - (to an Afrikaner all rooineks look the same!!) Maybe at date in the diary the farm had not yet been bought? Annelize said PcP bought it from a Van Zyl. This name is mentioned several times in the diary, seemingly as neighbours even. Need to contact descendants. Maybe the matter can only be clarified at a DeedsOffice. But we need to get more bio. on all these families with links to Keerom]
Dr Bow & Nicholson here. Jeannies face swollen. Dr Bow & N started.
Sun 27 Dugald & self started for Springbok. Von L started for bay.
Mon 28 Riding forage building stack. Jeannies face worse.
Tue 29 Riding forage building stack Kobus here.
Little Tobe [?] drowned in the dam this morning about
eight oclock - Sandy took him out & we tried in vain to restore him.
Sandy making a coffin.
Jeannies face very sore.
[Link dam photo. Death details would be recorded in SB?]
Wed 30 Buried Tobe [check T/?] this forenoon. In the afternoon the
cart arrived from Springbok with Mrs Hilder,[??]nice[?] & servant. self[??] & Dugald.
Von L arrived from bay about sundown.
Thur 31 Hogmaney my brothers birthday. Jeannies face very sore.
Sana stole a jacket of Mrs H & ran away.
"My brother's birthday": Clearly it is Agnes who is writng the diary.
It is also the first and only revelation to later generations of the family
that she had a brother, or any sibling for that matter. Only in 1997 was a
further discovery made by Paula Winton of some detail concerning her brother
See: ....

Diary for the year 1864

Fri 1 Started early with Dugald for Springbok to inspect road with Capt Plemes [?]
Torbet, young Mason Mr Auley here for breakfast. Jeannies face still very bad.
Mrs Hilder & Von L rode over to Keko on horseback. Joseph & Old Kos over at
Keko. Sandy & Von L caught Sana in the bushes while chasing the yellow cow.
Brought her home & chained her to the mill. [Old Scottish custom?]
Sat 2 Sandy found Von L's boots, tobaco, matches, pipe, handkerchief
that Sana had stolen.
Mrs H. and Von L rode out - Dugald arrived with cart from Springbok.
Sun 3 Arrived from Spectacle this afternoon.
Mon4 Killed a sheep. Making the [???]. Plucking figs in the garden
with Mrs Hilder
Tue 5 Preparing to start. Jeannies face still the same.
Wed 6 Started at half past three in the morning with Mrs Hilder for Springbok.
Took Sana along with us. Plucked the geese.
[Is this the last mention of Sana in the diary? Check.
Thur 7 Sandy & Dugald went to Buffels river for forks [?] [there was a shop there?]
Dr M [?] Nicholson[?] & Mr[s] Davies arrived here about 1/2 eleven.
Started about 3.
{This is all a bit confusing.]
Dr opened Jeannies cheek. Torbet here in the evening.
Fri 8 Killed a sheep. Riding wood before breakfast. Torbet left.
Sat 9 Returned from Springbok
Young Mason here. 1 sheep missing. Dugald drying figs.
Sun 10 Rained a little in the morning. Ludwig [?] baking [?] parkaids[???]
Mon 11 Preparing to start for Hardevelt.
Tue 12 Old Kos enclosing stack. Killed a sheep
Wed 13 Took cart , mules & horses to Kekokies - got mules,
horses shod & cart repaired
Thur 14 Sandy & Dugald touching up the cart a little. Getting things ready
Fri 15 Von L started after breakfast with cart & pony.
Peter started after dinner on Charlie.
Sat 16 Joseph sent to seek 2 sheep missing & the bucks
came home with all except the two sheep.
Old Kos grinding corn.
Sandy & Dugald working at the conservatory.
Jeannies neck much worse, fomenting it with hot water.
Sun 17 Archers boy here with span oxen to drink water. Mannel here.
Poulticed Jeannies neck.
Mon 18 Joseph sent to seek the two missing sheep & the kid
came home to say he cannot find them.
Kos cutting bushes to cover the stack.
Sandy making velt shoes.
An early(?) example of a common spelling problem.(?)
One of the first words a rooinek arriving in the Cape would
have encountered would have been "veldt":= the bush, wilderness.
An exciting concept. And "veld shoes" would naturally be thought
to be shoes for walking in the veld. Later, perhaps, they might be understood to be "velskoen". (Vel=leather?, skoen=shoe.)
A similar clothing problem exists with the German word "lederhosen".
They are not of course for walking and singing lieder. Though this
undoubtedly has occurred.
Old Mr Archer here on his way to the bay. [ so he lived "east" of Keerom?]
Tue 19 Joseph got the two sheep, one of them with
its tail eaten off. Jan Prince here.
Wed 20 Joseph came home tonight without the sheep.
Kos breaking wood - his child sick.
Sandy tinkering at clocks.
Thur 21 Archer here.
Jeannie much better. 1 sheep died.
Fri 22 Dugald over at Keko, - dispatched boy with
letters for Springbok.
Sat23 Sheep missing, I [D.?] killed a hare
Sun 24 Sandy went in search of the sheep & found them.
Spent this afternoon in garden. Water very scarce[?]
[in v feint pencil?] everything looks scorched. Cattle all right tonight [?]
Mon 25 Joseph returned from Springbok - brought newspapers
& a letter for Miss Davis, & one for Von L
Old Princes wife went home.
On Friday a "boy" was sent with letters to Springbok.
Today Joseph returned from Springbok, with newspapers.
The usage "boy" here seems strange if applying to Joseph,
based on what has been written so far on his role or activities
at Keerom.
Tue 26 Mrs Morris Miss Davi[e]s Mr Ashton arrived after dinner.
Most of the evening in the garden
Wed 27 Mrs M, , Miss D & the rest sitting under the pear tree
all forenoon - Sandy, D & Ashon practising rifle shooting in
the garden. Sent a messenger to Keko in the evening.
Rifle. what sort? Cartridges? wastage? Shotguns also?
[Write Berto Archer re possible rifles. Also Pat's SAC cup]
Thur 28 The visitors left after breakfast. sent letter to Mr Pritchard
Torbet here at dinner. Dugald out shooting brought home
two partridges
Fri 29 Mrs Shaw came over alone on horseback. Sandy rode over
with Mrs S in the the evening. [where]
Old Grace was at Keko.
Sat 30 Dugald & Joseph out loooking for wild bucks -- shot a
coran [= korhaan; small bustard] Killed a sheep.
Sun 31 Sandy very bad with tooth ache - no one here - writing &
reading today

Mon 1 All of us working at the pears Old Kos cleaning the [?]
Tue 2 Dugald out with the gun
Wed 3 Landon went way. Joseph sent after him [sent after him?]
Thur4 Sent Kos to Kekokies. Dugald looking for the sheep & bucks.
One of Torbets mules in the garden last night
Fri 5 Messenger from Keerom with letters & papers - home letters -
first letter from Peter since he left - wrote to Peter to Clanwilliam.
Sandy & Kos all afternoon after the cattle. Dugald Betje & self
watered the garden [ PETER STILL AWAY] {"Messenger from Keerom??"]
Sat 6 Pickling red cabbage & hanging up pears.
Dugald.? Dugald fell from the outer branches of the
pear tree into the muddy water - got a great fright & hurt
his arm a little.
This surely must have been a tree of some age. for them to
sitting under it etc and producing an abundance of fruit.
And "out branches etc"... Something troubling about all this..
Killed a sheep. Joseph came home today with Landon from
Sun 7 Mr Wild here from Keko in the afternoon - rode back to Keko
about sundown
Mon 8 Sent Mr Judges servant over to Keko to Mr Wild.
Cutting up pears. Writing home letters.
Tue 9 Dugald took my letters to Keko - Mr & Mrs Heath
& Old Townsend there on the way to Springbok.
D got letters & newspapers from Heath which he
had carried to the Bay & back again.
Two letters from Peter one from P[?]andegat 27 January
one from Cape Town 30th Jan.
letter from Mrs McLashlan & [?] from Stetyler.
Dugald brought home news that Will Baxter shot himself [google]
Wed 10 Cutting up pears. Kos & Joseph breaking wood
Thur 11 Dugald out shooting on[with??] Landon at the Buffels river
Fri 12 Got a load of wood, Sandy shooting little birds
Sat 13 Killed a sheep - very poor
Sun 14 Kos & Joseph at Keko the latter went without leave
- did not come home untill past eleven oclock -
Sandy & Dugald had to go after cattle & sheep.
D. read sermon. Manuel/Mannel here
Mon 15 Brown Damara with long horns calfed.
D took the apples off the trees
Tue 16 Torbet here. Dugald at Keko
Wed 17 Received post no letters
Thur 18 Kos mending the hedge
Fri 19 Sheep went away.
Sat 20 Sandy looking for the sheep.
Peter & Ludwig returned from CapeTown & the Hardevelt.
What was he/they doing in C.T.? re Messelpad.
Check v.L was in Hardevelt only?
Shaw here from Keko
Sun 21 Sheep came back. Killed a sheep
[they killed on a Sunday.
Their grandson Peter Fletcher of Zimbile, Rhodesia, who was
unreligious, used to say that as a youngster he was
discouraged from hunting on a Sunday. His father Pat
who was born on Keerom, never seems to have gone to
church save possibly when he was a student.
The injunction against Sunday killing might have come from
the distaff side; from the Eastern Cape rather than Namaqualand(?)]
Tue 23 Torbet here all day left sundown
Wed 24 Torbet here - Harry Agenbag here -
preparing to start - Sandy finishing Springbok stable door - Thur 25 Started 4 A.M. for Springbok with Dugald - & jipsy[?] & Lady Serle
Van Keenan here - began bag of corn Ironing day
Fri 26 Sandy shot 31 black birds for dinner Ironing day
Sat 27 Kos finished mattress - cleaning & [mending??] Killed a sheep.
Peter returns from S.B 3 oclock A.M. [chk moonphase]
Sun 28 All day at home. Sandy looking for the lost buck. -
Peter read a sermon on "Boast not thyself of tomorrow"
Mon 29 Began to thrash - Rained a little - bought 2 bottles of honey
from a boy 2/3d per bottle.
Princes wife came to make the kaross [of skins with hair/fur ] -
Dr & Mrs Morris arrived after supper.
March 1864 Tue 1 Dr & Mrs M left after breakfast. Sent subscription for Punch £1.
Thrashing. [Threshing?] Killed a sheep.
Wed 2 Torbet here brought letts that Rich took to bay a week ago. English mail
Thur 3 Thrashing - cold weather
Fri 4 Left for bay (A - P)?? Carver came from S.B.
Sat 5 Carver left after breakfast for the bay -
Old Grit [?] took home the cat skins to sow [sew] them -
9 cats [CapeAfrican wildcat?/serval?] 6 jackals.
Returned from Bay.
Brought in cart - dinner set - box tea - small cask frontac[?] -
1 doz Constantia - 2 basins & ewers etc etc [Constantia = wine/brandy? from Constantia Estate, Cape Town.
"frontac" = frontinac sp? check]
Sun 6 At home all day Read a sermon. Killed a sheep [? Mon]
Mon 7 Plucked the geese
Tue 8 Sandy & D went over to Keko with wagon brought 1 bag coffee
1 bag rice 3 small bags dates - trunk from home, bath[?] & sundries.
"trunk from home". Eureka!
Why was it at Keko?
Wed 9 Torbet here on his way to S.B.
Nicholson & Mrs Orpen [Olpen?] & children arrived
Thur 10 Nicholson - Mrs O etc[?] left for Springbok.
Mrs O planted a tree before the house.
Fri 11 Planted a tree behind the house
Sat 12 Received letter post per Torbet. Killed a sheep.
Sun 13 At home all day. Read a sermon
Mon 14 Writing home letter. Peter & Dugald left with the cart for S.B.
Tue 15 Old Princes wife came began to work at tigers skins. [tiger=leopard?].
Meeting of the D.C.
Wed 16 Returned home [Again, person/s unclear]
Thur 17 Torbet here on the way to Cape Town -

Cramp [Croup?]
Ipecacuanha powder 5 grains with one drop of laudanum &
a little water every half hour until free vomiting takes place -
After which give 4 grains of calomel & 5 drops of laudanum
[There can't be many still around these days who have taken
ipecac in the wine form, involuntarily, as children. Those there are will nodoubt envy the drops of laudanum afterwards.]

Locusts made their appearance about 11A.M. rose in an
immense body covering the sky & treked to bushmanland
about 4 P.M. [Locate bushmanland]
Fri 18 Locusts back again 1/4 past 11 A.M.. Killed a sheep.
Got a load of wood. Locusts went away abt same time as yesterday.
Old Kos started for Springbok - gave him £3
Sat 19 Started early for S.B. on Charlie.
Old Grit took the tigers skins to finish at Keko. [tigers=leopards]
(Made confit this week - 8 lbs sugar)
[In a different hand. Writing more upright. Check.
confit=konfyt; a preserve/jam, often made from kaffir watermelons.
etym.: prob. French Heugenot.]
Sun 20 Came home from S.B.
Mon 21 Macauly & Geniss [?] here
Tue 22 M&G left
Wed 23 Began a bag of corn. Dugald preparing to start.
Thur 24 Betjes father arrived.
NB Betje's father....etc....
Started with Dugald for the Bay.
Fri 25 Sandy finished the washtable.
Killed a sheep.. Joseph brought in all the pumpkins.
[The melons for the confit probable grew amongst them]
Sat 26 Weather quite changed this week, cool, nights cold.
Dugald came back again as there was no vessel in the Bay.
Returned from the Bay 2 small casks wine, 1 [ditto] Brandy
Sun 27 At home all day
Mon28 Von L arrived from Springbok brought post English mail -
letters from home.
T. obtained a £70 [10?] scholarship
[This entry took on great significance in 2017, (after the first
draft of the diary), when new data from Paula Winton in the UK
helped solve(?) the mystery of who Thomas Eaglesim
(of the heavy Bible given in Cape Town in 1861) almost
certainly was. Elsewhere in this diary Agnes refers to him
as her brother. See Peter-Agnes bio.]
Jan Van Wyk brought 5 muids corn 5 muids rye from Sroeder[?]
Tue29 At home all day
Wed 30 A. Wellby arrived [et seq in pencil?, unclear, rubbed out?]
Went with A Wellby to Canariesfontein a[?] note for M.P. [resumes ink]
Thur 31 Killed a sheep. Went with A. Wellby to Canariesfontein [locate]

------- April -------

Fri 1 Tiger hunt !!! Wellby left
Sat 2 Working at conservatory. Began first bag of new corn.
As elsewhere, needs explanation. Nowhere is corn equated definitely
with wheat. Nor is it equated with mealies/maize/corn, (as in American usage). If wheat is being referred to, the "new corn" likely had already
in the bag for six months or so.Unlikely to have grown a few mealies
in the dry summer. Maybe a few sweet corn in a kitchen garden?
But they would not have been in a bag.
Koring=wheat (Afrikaans).
Sun 3 Von L spent the day at the floor
[From numerous entries it would seem that the floor was
at Kekokies. The "floor" being a flat and relatively clean surface
upon which wheat, barley, oats was threshed. This could be by
machinery, or by the action of the hooves animals such as horses etc. walking over it. The seedheads were broken and the loosened grain
could then be winnowed on the same floor by wind, either natural or
mechanical. It would appear that there was also a mill of some sort
at Kekokies for grinding the grain into flour.
Those of the family who more than a hundred years later made
pilgrimages to Keerom mention a flat area, possibly such a floor, in
front of the old Keerom homestead. See xxxx
Mon4 Nicholson Mrs Orpen children & servant here on their way home.
Tue 5 Visitors left. Dugald left. Joseph lost a sheep.
[See 26th. March. Surely large passenger ships(to UK?) would
not pick up people at Hondeklip? Might Dugald be catching a boat
to C.T. from where he would go by liner?]
Wed 6 Writing letters for home
Thur 7 Wrote to Steele about tannery
See elsewhere entries about gathering bark. For tanning?
Also, in connection with the transport riding of skins to Hondeklip.etc
Check Smalberger.
Fri 8 Dr Bow [Bain? check ]Aschen, Roberts here
Sat 9 Raining. Dr Bow & Aschen left after breakfast took letters for English mail.
Killed a sheep. Ligo [?] came. This is Peters Birthday [underlined] Von L & Roberts rode over to the floor, & brought post - no letters.
Sun 10 Roberts left after breakfast. Took a walk over the hills. Read sermon.
Mon 11 Ligo built up the eaves in bedroom.
Tue 12 Ligo mended roof
Wed 13 Started for Springbok took Ligo with me. & a canary for Dr
Ludwig rode over to Keko. Killed a sheep. Sandy went to Keko
with wagon, brought bag sugar
Thur 14 Kos building a wall round the roses.
re. wall garden in old photo? But this is after the photo?
[begins diff. hand] began new bag coffee - 5 lbs burned- [ends]
Fri 15 Ludwig & Sandy. Nothing to do
Sat 16 Returned from Springbok
Sun 17 Ludwig at Kekokies. Read a sermon
Mon 18 Sent cart to Keko for Nicholsons bram[?]
brought X up one bag - 10 lbs beef
Tue 19 building conservatory.
[start underline] Betrothal in the Kitchen! [ends]
Wed 20 Betjes father left. Despatched Kos with post on poney.
{diff hand 1 lb coffee}ends
Thur 21 Tiger [leopard] killed 2 bucks [= goats?]
Kos returned with post - English mail
My Brother received the £50
The scholarship, mentioned above. See: datexxx
Mr Morris & Townsend came with Kos.
(Bushmanland expedition 25th May)
Account of medicine chest received (£14)
[diff] Sheep Boy 1 lb coffee [ends]
Fri 22 Messrs M & T left for the bay.
All hands turned out for the tiger hunt. no success.
( 21 lbs beef Keko).
Put poison in part of the dead buck
The leopard killed a goat, part of which was used to try and poison the leopard.
Sat 23 Jan Prince here Jan & Andries Agenbag 7 young boer[??] here.
[diff] 5 lbs coffee burned [ends]
Sun 24 At home all day. Read a sermon.
Mon 25 Started for Hardevelt.
Killed young kapater crimp[??] sick.
Tue 26 {We]nt over to Keko to attend Mr Morris's service,
came back after dark with Mr Morris & Mr[?] Townsend.
Wed 27 Making quince confyt - 6 lbs sugar, 3 1/2 bottles
Groom over for medicine for Masons cook. Mr/s Morris had
mixed a bottle of cough med. last night.
Kos mixing clay for Ludwigs floor
Thur 28 Sandy Kos & Joseph working all day at Ludwigs floor.
Ludwig's floor
Gave Prince one of the motherless kids.
Check? G. Prince. of Prince, Collison & Co?
Fri 29 Sent Kos to Keko for 10 lbs beef 4 bars soap 6 sticks tobacco.
[ Receipts of meat etc from Keko are marked in the diary with a X]
Sandy Kos & Joseph working till sundown at Ludwigs floor.
Bucks not home tonight.
Sat 30 Sandy & Joseph away all morning & forenoon searching for bucks
got them all right about midday. Kos working at enclosure.

Sun 1 Sent Kos early to the X floor for meat got 10 lbs
Probably the "floor" at Keko, and not Ludwig's floor (in a room?)
Letter from the bay
Mon 2 Making quince confyt 6 lbs white sugar
Tue 3 Wagon at Keko brought Nicholsons bram. 22 1/2 lbs beef.
Parcel from Springbok.
Wed 4 Arrived home from Hardevelt
[This ink is a little darker.
> Whoever went to the Hardeveld left eight days before]
Thur 5 Kos cleaning out dam. 5 lbs c offee burned. Old Grit here
Fri 6 10 lbs meat from Keko. post - letter from D. McK.
[A Dugald left 5 April. Was he McKellar?]
Gave Joseph 5 [marked as "entered". But pounds or shillings ?]
Started for Springbok via Messklip
[Possible location of Mesklip is 29deg 50' S, 17deg 51' E.
It is approx 24km a.t.c.f., NE of Keerom homestead.
Presently farm buildings and guesthouses are shown on satellite images, close to the N7 south of Springbok.]
Sat 7 Kos cleaning out dam weather cloudy - lbs meat from Keko
Sun 8 Mannel here. Weather still cloudy
Mon 9 Ludwig occupied his room again.
[Since it seems Ludwig has been based at Keerom all along
it is most likely the floor referred to earlier was one being layed
at Keerom]
Returned from S.B. brought Mr & Mrs Davis & Miss Davis
& 2 servants.
Tue 10 Left for Bay with Mr D. on horseback. Harry with the mules.
Killed young kapater & 2 young fowls.
Mrs & Miss D[avis] L.[udwig] S[andy] & self went up the rock.
[Those that did not leave for the bay went up the rock? So it
was the women, including Agnes, and Ludwig & Sandy.
Otherwise it could only have meant Agnes set off on horseback
for the bay with Mr D., and Harry with the mules. Unlikely.
This entry is a good example of the confusing authorship of the diary.]
[Unless Peter said he wanted to go up on the rock with Miss D., and Agnes said "Oh well, I suppose I will have to go with Mr D."?] Wed 11 Took a walk up the road afternoon. Weather cold fires on
Thur 12 10 lbs meat (salt) from Keko. Returned afternoon from Bay.
[dble underlined] New cart arrived[/ends]
Fri 13 Rode over with Miss D to Keko.
[who rode over? P. rode back from Bay the day before just so he
could at least ride over with Miss D., having missed out
on climbing the rock with her?]
Sandy took wagon over
Sat 14 Ludwig rode over to Keko with Miss D.
[Now it's Ludwig's turn? If she rode over again it suggests Keko
was not very far]
Beef from Keko
Sun 15 Ludwig took likenesses of the Davises.
[Maybe these images, like the one of Keerom, have also miraculously survived somewhere.
This is the second mention of Ludwig and photography. see xxx]
Read a sermon. Took a walk before tea
Mon 16 Started for Buffels river.
[a farm?
There was a tollhouse at some stage? Seexxx.
Also find material from Mr Kotze.]

{"the toll was on the Springbok side of the Messelpad., I rather
suspect where the road leaves the bed of the Buffels River." G.R.}
Mr Davis arrived from the Bay about tea time [am/pm?]
Plucked the cocks tails today.
Tue 17 Geese - found some dead others about dead in the dam.
Mr & Mrs Davies walked out in search of bulbs -
Rain in the evening.
[Davis/Davies? check ]
Wed 18 Mr D & Sandy started early for Kekokies to see engines come
over Keko hill [??]
Sandy returned dinner time& brought a boxfull toys for
Jeannie from Mr Davies. Mr Davies came over teatime. -
Peter arrived later from buffels river
[So the diarist today is Agnes. Buffels spelled with a capital
on 16th, today l/c]
beef from Keko
Thur 19 Peter & Mr D left early to meet the engine - Peter returned
breakfast time -
Check railway/tramway construction records
raining - Little Jan Kotzee here to fetch things for Ludwig.
Miss D sent him a likeness of himself
[There has been no mention of darkrooms, development etc.
What process might this have been, and when might this
likeness have been made? Maybe this likeness was a portrait
drawing by Miss D? ]
Went out for a walk down the Kloof [Tigerkloof too far away? check]
- Townsends here - Cart from S.B. for D's. Capt Bowe here
[Townsend? Capt. Bowe?]
Fri 20 Went to Keko to pay Mr & Mrs T a wedding[?] visit.
wedding? T.?
Jeannie ill with diarrhea


Sat 21 All started for Springbok - Peter on his way to Bushmanland.
Jeannie severe diarrhea - like pieces of skin streaked with blood -
gave her rhubarb & magnesia
Sun 22 No better gave her castor oil with yolk of egg. - movement slimy
& bloody - myself very bad cold
10 lbs beef Keko
Mon 23 Jeannie much about the same - baby coughing very much -
Mannel still here.
[Agnes is at Keerom? Not on the trip?]
Tue 24 12 lbs beef 2 sticks tob [tobacco]
Mason [?]sent for Mannel to come back to his work.
Jeannie rather better.
[???] with letters[? illeg]
Wed25 Jeannie about the same diarrhea still continues -
very ill & feverish myself took castor oil [??]
letter from home, & [?]
Thur26 Jeannie rather better - Kos still working at trench
Fri 27 Harry went to Keko for meat got 7lbs & a piece of pork -
All of us much better.
Sat 28 Cart started for S.B.[Springbok]
Arrived from Bushmanland
Sun 29 Kos brought meat & newspapers from Keko.
The Torbets arrived eleven oclock left 4 PM.
Arrived home from Bushmanland tonight
Mon 30 At Keko brought 8 lbs pork
Tue31 Ludwig returned from Camiesberg [= Kamiesberg]
{Kamiesberg is the mountainous area behind (to the east of)
Kamieskroon town. At this time the town was still in the valley
at Bowesdorp. The shift out of the valley and seven km south to
Kamieskroon was initiated in 1924. But of course the "kroon"
(crown of cleft rock on the nearby mountain) was there!!
( See Wikipedia et altera). G.R.}

[Wesleyan Mission Station at Kamiesberg]

[Kamieskroon is 35 km a.t.c.f. from Keerom? ]
June Wed 1 Ludwig left for Camiesberg
[He only came back for the pork?]
Thur 2 Working at the wagon.
Fri 3 Beef from Keko 10 lbs. Sandy making flag
[declaring Keerom Republic?/staff?/flag for survey?]
Sat 4 Joseph started for Kammagas for sheep
[Kommagas was one of four places with old mission stations.
Kamiesberg; Kommagas; Kok Fontein; Nisbet Bath. (Smalberger).
The village itself is about 27 km. from Keerom a.t.c.f..]
Sent Harry to S.B. with post [?] Went over to Keko
Sun 5 Harry arrived from S.B. with post. Read sermon.
Joseph came from Kommagas with sheep [illeg]
Killed a sheep
Mon 6 A. Welby here, on his way to Canariesfontein. Sandy went
there with him.
Canariesfontein find. on PF map. Google
Started for S.B.
Red & white cow calfed.
Tue 7 Rain all day. Kos grinding corn
Seems corn (wheat) was being ground at Keerom?
Wed8 Kos cleaning the werf [?].
[werf = barnyard, farmyard. (Afrikaans.)? ]
Sandy painting wagon. Writing home letters.
Thur9 Sent Kos to keko with letters - got 6 bars soap.
Peter returned from S.B. Mr McInt[yre?] & Durham
with him.
heard that Old Prince died last night
[Old Prince? (see mining co above)]
Fri 10 Messrs McIntyre & Durham left. over
(continued) 3 minutes will record a days transactions
at Keerom. Hence no excuse of - "no time" - entry this
day - good [underlined] [Scan this page? The atypical side
headings omitted here]
Sat 11 Making Betjes new dress.
One of the bucks not here tonight, Sandy painting the wagon.
Sun 12 Killed a sheep.
[This is unequivocally on a Sunday. See above re killing on a Sunday.?]
At home all day - read a sermon.
Joseph brought home one of the bucks killed by a tiger or a jackal
- the others all right.
Mon 13 Katrina came from Kamaggas to sew.
[Kamaggas 28 km N of Keerom, a.t.c.f..]
Started for Kamiesberg to join Ludwig.
Began to wean Baby. [Illeg] a great work with her in the night.
Katrina working at Betjes dress. [wedding dress?]
Tues 14 Raining splendidly all day. very unwell with the milk Kos making his velt shoes
Wed 15 Rain not so constant as yesterday. very cold.
One of the young bucks (last years kid) had 3 kids one died.
Sandy cutting trousers & vest. Katrina finished Bs dress
& began mine. Kos grinding corn.
Thur 16 Hilder & Shaw here from the bay. took breakfast & eleven
& bread & cheese in their pockets & started for S.B.
[Springbok. 40 km a.t.c.f.]
Fair until 12 oclock began to rain again. Mason sent over for a
sheep as his only slaughter ox was lost - gave him one of the
worst of the hamels
Fri 17 Raining heavily. the dam very large, overflowing.
Our large washing after hanging on the hedge two days
had to be thrown into tubs of water. Some of the bucks not here tonight. Sandy went to seek
them. Another of the young bucks lambed ( one kid). found
one of the bucks that had lambed, got a kid dead in the bush.
All these mishaps owing to Josephs carelessness & disregard
of what was said to him. Cows not home tonight
Sat 18 Cleared up today. Little black calf died,
Peter & von L returned from Kamiesberg.
Killed a sheep
Sun 19 find dry day, very cold. Cornelius Grootberg came in the
afternoon. Mr Currey came over with Ludwig from the floor.
Read a sermon.
{Mr Currey: would this be the John Blades Currey quoted by
Smalberger on page 79? Seems probable. G.R.}
[If he came over from the "floor" (=Kekokies?) check his
relationship with the company.]
[Marginal heading:] Ploughing Began
Mon 20 Commenced ploughing,
Started for Springbok along with Ludwig, Mrs Currey
& Cornelius Grootberg,
Sent leg of mutton to Mason. Ironing all day.
Tue 21 Ploughing. One of the bucks had four kids.
Wrote to Miss Findlay for dress etc & sent letter to Keko.
2 sticks tobacco Received a bag of papers & letters,
English mail, home letters. Punches.
"Punch" magazines, that she sent the subscriptions for!
Wed 22 Killed a sheep. Opened a bag of corn. Sandy & Kos ploughing
Joseph grinding. Boy passed here on his way to Springbok -
sent a letter to peter.
Peter returned along with H Wilby. Old Cornelius came with the cart.
Thu 23 Cornelius left. Ploughing. Ludwig arrived brought post - letter
from Dugald
[marginal] ...?? ..corn old Grit]
[Where is D.]
Fri 24 Welby left, Sent letter to Dugald. Dr & Mrs Morris came

June 25 Marriage at Keerom between Jacobus Brinkhuis aged 45
& Betje Michelle [?] aged 33, both residing at Keerom in the
district of Namaqualand by Fr [Mr?] I.[J?]R. Morris - curate of Namaqualand.
Signature of the parties Jacobus Brinkhuis his X mark
R [?] Betje Michel [is this A's hand?]
Witness P Fletcher G.a[?] von Ludwig

] prescription for Miss Morris abt 14 years of age]
Prescription for outbreak
Oxyd of Zinc one dram
Sheeptail fat or spermacet[i] ointment one ounce
- mix - to be applied to the sores after the crust is
removed by Bran Poult[ice] three times a day
2 pills at bedtime -
// Dilute nitric acid one dram & a half do muriate do - do do
Quinine 10 grains Water winebottlefull
Dose a wineglassfull before every meal
---------------------// ----------------
[check original layout]

Mason here for the above medicine.
Nanny calfed.
Dr Bou & Mr[s?] Morris left for the bay.
Brought last week for Kos, roll tobacco 2/6 & 1 pair trousers 19/-
[+ ditto marginal entry]
Sun 26 At home all day. Ludwig at Keko. Read a sermon. Killed a sheep.
Mon 27 Ploughing. Peter writing to Sir [initial illeg.] McClear. Rain tonight
Kos still working in the ????
[Almost certainly Sir [also Dr., Rev.] Thomas Maclear, 1794-1879,
Born in Ireland. Famous South African astronomer. director of
Cape Observatory, & land surveyor whose work led to the forming
of the Govt.Trigonometrical Survey Off ice of S.A. Also for work proving
the earth is round..
See http://assa.saao.ac.za/html/his-astr-maclear_t.html
Tue 28 Andries came, began to work at the plough
Kos working in the garden. Making Sandy trousers,
Wed 29 A. Welby here. Started with him for Springbok via Messklip.
Ploughing. Making baby frock
Thur 30 Killed a sheep. Ploughing Kos still working in the garden.
Made Jeannies frock. Heavy rain tonight.
--------- July------------

Fri 1 Ploughing. Making Jeannie & baby frocks.
Peter returned from Springbok along with James Halket
who brought a letter from Miss Findlay
Sat 2 Raining - Kos brought a fine lot of stumps. Mr{s] Judge & Tarry [?]
arrived about dark. Jantje Swartland came tonight
Sun 3 Halket & tarry left - Mr Judge left, Still raining dam overflowing.
Jantje went to Aronagas [?] for von L's coat. Read a sermon
Mon 4 Ploughing. Jantje Swartland began to work at enclosing the garden.
Fine weather today.
Tue5 Ploughed newly enclosed part of garden sowed it with barley & peas.
Lace went to Keko
Wed 6 Lace came back brought 2 lbs candles.
Ludwig copying Mr[s] Pellan's [Pillan's?] journal.
Interesting. See below remark re PcP arriving with Pillan at Kodas??
Ploughing Kos & Jantje working at the garden.
Thur 7
    Anniversay of C. Pillans & P Fletchers arrival at Kodas

Peter discovering treasures of information among boxfulls
old Namaqualand letters & papers, which after a lapse of
ten years, are now to be restored to their proper place in
the literarure of S.A.. V [?]to assist in the great undertaking
which is to render the name of P.F.
{Kodas was of course the copper mining centre in the Richtersveld,
where Patrick wrote his letters and intrepidly floated copper ore
down the Orange River! A different story that!
Don.t be mislead by the statement that this day was the
"Anniversay of C. Pillans & P Fletchers arrival at Kodas!!!".
Maybe they arrived on 7th July, but if so it was 7th July 1853, not 1863! G.R.}

["wrote his letters ..": link to letters
Check pagination for tenth? anniversary.i.e "after a lapse of ten years"]
Fri 8 Ploughing. Wrote home - dispatched harry to S.B with post on pony.
{pencil entries - check]
Sat 10 Killed a sheep. Harry returned 4 oclock P.M. Ploughing.
Gave Andries 2 buckets corn which squares up till tonight
Sun 11 Went over to Keko brought parcel of books for
Von L & J & Baby jackets from D. McK [is this D who went away?]
Shaw arrived from Bay
Mon 12 Shaw started after breakfast for S.B.
Cart started with Harry for Kammiesberg
Tue 13 Peter & Von L started for Kammiesberg. Ploughing
Wed 14 Andries went to Keko tonight. Kos all day at the ploughing.
1 can paraffin 2lbs 5[?] candles from Keko
Thur 15 Betje washing. Sent up all the food to the lands
Wrote to F. Fryer tonight.[Fanny?] Kos working at trench
Fine mild weather
Fri 16 Got good meat from Keko 10lbs?
Sat 17 Gave Jantje 1[/-?]
Sun 18 Lace went to Keko Joseph also there
Mon 19 Opened bag of corn for bread Meat 10 lbs Ploughing
Tue 20 Black & white cow calfed. Lace brought letter from Keko
from Miss Findlay. Kos & Jeannie carried the dinner to
the lands. [her age show dist to lands. "dinner" is midday meal?]
Wed 21 Yellow cow calfed last night. Meat from Keko 12 lbs
Thur22 Ploughing. Letters from Miss Findlay
Fri 23 Harry returned from [pencil, feint] Kamiesberg[ends] via Springbok
with post, English mail.
Peter returned from [pencil, very feint] Kamiesberg [ends pencil] with DePass [?]
Von L returned also with cart.
[ On this whole page it appears that pencil has been inked over. By Agnes or later, say by the archives??. See the archive letter apologising for the feint writing. What was meant?
Sat 24 New oxen (6)arrived [illeg] kapaters & horse.
Old Townsend here. Peter hurt his knee.
Sun 25 Townsend left. Betje Kos & Jeannie von L & Sandy
went to Keko to church.
Peters knee very sore rubbing it with [ ] vinegar.
Mon The Morrises arrived after breakfast
Tue Morrises left after breakfast.
Wed 27 Quarreled with Betje. She went away. Lace went home.
Sent medicine to Mason. [pencil illeg?]
Thur 28 Betje away all day. Came home at night all right.
Fri Rubbing Peters leg with soap[?] linament [?] & bandaged it.
Wagon home new wheels
Killed a sheep 2nd of new[? illeg]
Sat Jeannies birthday Jantje & Andries to this date
Sun Ludwig at the floor raining last night & this morning
Post per Ludwig Old Grit came
Mon 1 Largest[?] [???] to Old grit on Josephs account & 1/6
Ludwig & Harry started for the[?][???] in the cart
Tue 2 Sandy painting wagon. Katrina came from Kamagas
Wed 3 Kos & Jantje working in garden. Sandy painting wagon.
Peter writing letter to "Volksvriend" [check this?]
Thur 4 Very cold, threatening rain, Kos bringing stumps, baking[?]
Fri 5 Jantje brought box of seed from Keko.
Peter started after dinner
Sat 6 Heavy rain untill midday. Peter returned on account of the rain.
Jantje grinding till dinner time. Paid him off tonight
Sun 7 Went over to Keko. Mason returned with me [?] to Keerom.
Cameron's wife here [not much previous re Cameron check]
Mon 8 Started to join Von Ludwig. Killed a sheep. [P. joing von L]
Tue 9 Washing. Sent letter to Miss Grant.
Wed 10 Camerons wife left. Sandy painting wagon.
Thur 11 Nicholson arrived from Springbok about dark
Fri 12 Sowed carrots cauliflower cabbage in garden.
Katrina went home. Peter arrived from Springbok.
Post arrived with Annie Townsend
Sat 13 Raining
Sun 14 Read a sermon Killed a sheep
Mon 15 Making flag
Tues 16 Peter rode over to Keko. finished flag. Letter from Miss Findlay
Wed 17 Wrote letter to Miss findlay enclosing cheque for £7 [1?]
Thur 18 Gave Mason a sheep
Fri 19 Started for Springbok via Messklip, took Ghert Prince to bring
sheep from Jasper Coetsees, Sent Old Meetje to Keko
Sat 20 28 oxen of Abraham Coetzees in the land this morning
& a troop of other oxen. Coetzee sent the boys & came himself
to see about his oxen. Kos working at the kraal, Let the strange
oxen out & drove them away about sunset.
Sun 21 Hottentots came seeking their owen. Peter returned from Springbok
- letter from mrs Davis - English mail . Peter rode over to Keko
Mon 22 Peter started for Bay, Sewing all day. Dr & von L arrived from Springbok
Tue 23 Dr started early for Bay. Peter returned tonight broughrt box
from Miss Findlay & goods from Nicholson & Torbet, letter from Mrs N.
Wed 24 Preparing all day. Got half muid corn ground at Keko
Thur 25 Jan Rivers [?] arrived from S.B. brought letter from Mr Davis.
Mr & Mrs Mason here.
{ Joseph Rivers was the Civil Commissioner in Springbok
who authored the memorials asking for something to be
done about the road. See 1856 et al in the Chronology of my Guide to Research and Chapter 16 in my The Romance of
Cape Mountain Passes, which is about this period in Namaqualand. G.R}
Fri 26 Getting ready to start - Scoty left gave him 5/-.
Joe[?] Prince 10/6. Old Grit got 3d. emirs[?] corn yesterday
Sat 27 Started the wagon after breakfast. We started in the cart
immediately afterwards. Outspaned the cart at Kornhuis & had tiffin.
Arrived at Mrs Davis's Springbok about 8 p.m. [illeg]....
[The start of a long tour, beginning with a wedding in Springbok, and returning to Keerom after having a bathe at the mouth of the Orange River.] [PcP's Messelpad map indicates Kornhuis due east of Keerom and the river, but not as far Jakalswater on that map. But these might be localities rather than precise points. Kornhuis quite likely a neighbouring farm. An outspan might have been needed here as the journey so far across the granite hills might have been tiring for animals & people. Would this have been the normal road to S.B. for them without the family?]
[Tiffin: this is a word from India?]
Sun 28 Went to church in the morning [illeg] took a walk to the
fountain in the afternoon.
Mon 29 Baby very unwell since yesterday afternoon.
Baby = Murray ("Minny"), xx months old.
Called on Mrs[?] Hilder. Mrs D very busy preparing for tomorrow ceremony.
Afternoon rode over on horseback along with Mr Astchen
& Miss Davis, Dr Bow Old {Mr?} B & Mrs De Villiers in Dr B['s] [cart?]
to Okip. Capt Clemes[?] very kind - returned to S.B about dark.
[O'Kiep approx 6.5km a.t.c.f. N? of Springbok.
Nababeep approx 13.5 km a.t.c.f. NW of Springbok.]
{Okiep at that time known as O.okiep. If this is where they rode in an afternoon, and then on to Springbok, it was quite a ride! G.R.}
[Paragraph margin: "Springbok"]
Tues 30 About ten oclock went to church along with Mr Mrs & Miss D.
& Mrs Morris & witnessed the marriage between Mr Aschen & Miss Davis.
& four mules for Hondeklip bay. Afternoon went for a ride on
horseback along with Mrs D Mrs Morris Mr D Mr M Dr Bow etc.
Evening went to dinner at Dr Bow.
Baby very unwell today Mrs Kigand [sp??!] taking care of her.

[Paragraph margin: "Concordia"]
Wed 31 Wagon started last night. We started in the cart after breakfast
& overtook the wagon at Concordia about 12 oclock.
Started the wagon again after dinner, Mr & Mrs Judge came in
cart shortly after & after dinner started again to join their wagon
Baby still very unwell. Mrs V.S. [?] [Van Syl?] gave her an injection.
Stayed tonight at Concordia.


[Paragraph margin: "Kokfontein"]
Thur1 After breakfast started in cart & overtook the wagon
at Kokfontein. inspaned - went on to Kokfontein stopped
a few minutes took refreshment at Mr Brecher's [sp?]house.
von L. joined us here. Went on & overtook Mr Judges wagon
where we outspaned for the night
Fri 2 Went over Uitkek Mountain first piece of bad road
outspaned at Duncans werf [?] Got 10 sheep at 10/-,
the loan [?] of six goats - & 2 oxen at £3.10.
[Paragraph margin: "Uitkek Mountain"]
[Check map Uitkyk[?] ]
Sat 3 Inspecting officers & Mr Wild left with the cart for Maidjes Karoo. []
Took breakfast with Mrs Judge - killed a sheep. inspanned, went on
till evening, outspanned had dinner inspanned & travelled the greater
part of the night.
[Paragraph margin:"Augrabis"> Sun 4 Arrived this morning at Aurabis. Inspecting officers joined us here.
After eating inspanned & travelled on till evening, outspanned in the felt [= veld]
[Paragraph margin:"Port Nolloth">
Mon 5 Arrived today at Port Nolloth, had breakfast in the felt,
afterwards inspecting officers left along with Mr Dryer & Mr Wild
left to inspect Obib [?] We went down to Mrs Dryers & had dinner.
Inspectors returned in the evening, We all had supper at Mrs D's.
Mr & Mrs J slept there also Annie & Jeannie. We went back to the wagons.
Tue 6 Went to Mrs D's for breakfast - then wrote a letter to my brother, to go by
the "Gem" lying in the bay. We all except Mr W took dinner at Dryers -
We left Porth Nolloth this evening, travelled a few hours.
Wed 7 Killed a sheep
[Paragraph margin:"Holgat"

Thur 8 Arrived at Holgat tonight
[Paragraph margin:"Homewoods Harbour"

Fri 9 travelled on to the diggings, outspanned for dinner, travelled
on to Homewoods Harbour. Had supper there, inspanned travelled
on for a few hours when we had to outspan as Mr J's oxen could
not go any further. Passed Harrisons Cove [?] tonight
[Paragraph margin:"Mouth of Orange River"]
Sat 10 Reached the mouth of the river about midday, had a bathe.
Mrs J girl washing.
Sun 11 Put the oxen over on Malcolms island last night.
[Paragraph margin:"Brandbosch"]
Left the mouth this afternoon & travelled on till
near Brandtbosch
[Paragraph margin:"Aris"> Mon 12 Rain & wind - Killed a sheep oxen strayed
left abt 3 oclock P.M., travelled on till dark - outspanned
for half an hour had a cup of tea - went on to Aris
outspanned 11 oclock PM. for three hours - Went
on till morning.
[Paragraph margin:"Springklip"] Tue13 when we found we were on the wrong road.
Peter left us after breakfast in search of the native werf.
came back about midday & went on till sundown.
outspanned had dinner under three large upright stones
[somebody find them!] got water & went on to Springklip half past ten
- part of the road bad had to inspan all the oxen in one wagon
killed a sheep.
[werf: Afrik = barnyard, farmyard, yard, kraal?]
[Paragraph margin:"Camras?"> Wed 14 Travelled two or three hours this morning. Outspanned
abt 7 a.m. for breakfast, inspanned abt midday & went on
till three ock had dinner went on to Camras[?] abt 10 ock had to dig for water.
[Paragraph margin:"Lekkerstein?"] Thur15 Took breakfast in a perfect whirlwind of sand -
followed - outspanned had a cup of tea - went on till
evening - met Mr Kopperberghers wagon - outspanned
had dinner - went on to Lekkerstein [?]
[Paragraph margin:"Ourabis"> Fri 16 Terrible wind this morning could not make breakfast
- went on till midday outspanned had dinner - road good
but stony crosssed bed of river went on again till evening -
outspanned for an hour & rode on again till abt 11 oclock
reached Ourabis - outspanned
Sat 17 Killed a sheep we had one leg of it - got some sugar
at Sandens [Sanders?] shop here.
Mr J hired span of oxen from Sanden to take them
to S.B. for 5£ - Started at midday.
Parted from Judges wagon - they going to Kokfontein
& we to Madjes Karroo - outspanned tonight in the velt -
road very good
[Paragraph margin:"Masons Mine"]
Sun 18 Went to Madjes Karroo - outspanned for breakfast.
hottentots brought 2 bottles milk - took breakfast here
& went on till evening - outspanned took dinner - killed a
fowl - inspanned about 9 oclock P. M. ; outspanned abt
11 P.M. at Masons mine.
[Paragraph margin:"Buffels River"
Mon 19 After breakfast inspanned & went on to this water place
on the Buffels river "Kabis". After dinner Peter left on Charlie
for Springbok. Killed a sheep - Ghert went after the trek of
Duncans cattle. Met Duncans wagon today.
Tue 20 Class went after the oxen - turned out the wagon looking for
tobacco found none. Annie washed pinafores & frocks.
Class Van Zyl passed this morning.
Wed 21 Class half of the day seeking the two new oxen - then went to
seek the keys [?] - Christian (hottentot, old servant) here today
with his old mother & whole family. Young Van Zyl , & Old Julie
who brought bottle honey. - Two Hottentots who passed this
morning said Campbells [?] trek passed Kommaggas yesterday
they saw nothing of Ghert - Von L. & cart arrived this evening.
Thur 22 Von L rode over to Van Zyls. Old Julie his wife son & girl here,
asking for a remedy for the boys face which had suddenly
become distorted. Got some meal & eggs from Mrs Van Zyl
[how far away Van Zyls farm likely? Keerom was first owned by a Van Zyl?]
Peter arrived abt midday. Started this evening outspanned on the
copper road near Spectakle
"on the copper road near Spectakle" Pre Messelpad. Check other road existence.
[Paragraph margin:"Kommaggas"] Fri 23 Went on to near Kommaggas outspanned - Received post from
Kommaggas - English mail - sent harry with letters & for sugar
& tobacco - inspanned went on till sundown outspanned in Kommaggas lands. [farm?] Sat 24 Went on till ten oclock outspanned had breakfast
now in Keerom velt [calculate boundary]Arrived at Keerom abt 3 ock
Sun 25 Peter rode over to Keko
Mon 26 Miss Townsend & her brother here. Cart went to Keko for wine -
6 lbs sugar & 12 lbs rice
Tue 27 Mr Steele here - left after breakfast - Townsends left - Harry at
Keko getting horses shod. Class Van Zyl here [= Klaas?]
Wed 28 Gave Joseph £12[.]6 [12/6?]
Cart started for Clanwilliam, Townsend returned.
[Paragraph margin: "Clanwilliam"]
Thur 29 Peter started for Clanwilliam Townsend started for Springbok
Sandy & Kos looking for the oxen.
Clanwilliam here, as elsewhere, might refer to the long area
of Namaqualand of that name, east of Springbok and north
of the town of that name. See map:
Fri 30 Betje very ill quite delirious last night


Sat 1 Betje still in bed, but rather better. Sandy at Keko
Sun 2 Betje rather better got up a little
Mon 3 Wrote to Mrs Nicholson. Sent Kos to the floor
with corn to grind. Killed kapater - sick . Kos did not get
all the meal ground as the mill broke down.
[What kind of mill would it have been/driven by what?]

{ Mill undoubtedly .driven. by a donkey, walking in a circle
around a central point/pole on the vloer.
(But I may be wrong . I am an engineer, not a back-veld farmer!) G.R.}

[Insert laaiplek link]
[This episode is conclusive: they did not grind their own meal
at Keerom. It was done at Kekokies
Tue 4 Sent Kos for the rest of the meal.
Went with Sandy to Keko to attend Mr Morrises service at 5 P.M.
Dr arrived there before we left, heard that Mrs De Villiers
was again very sick.
Wed 5 Writing to Miss Findlay & Peter this forenoon.
Sent the letter per Kos, who left per mule train for Springbok -
gave him Peters note to Townsend, & sent for 1 bushel seed potato
1 whitewashing brush & three lbs tea Betje rather better today
[NB mule train]!!! Research!!]
Thur 6 Very hot & sultry today. Giving lots of water to the
garden - still it looks drooping.
Fri 7 Sandy rode over to Keko brought 6 lbs rice & a little
cheese, but no sugar - no letters or papers yet./br> SAndy working in the garden. Weeded the clover
[ NB clover] Betje very ill again tonight
Sat 8 Turkeys in the garden. Betje still in bed
{ .Turkeys.. Possibly guinea fowl? G.R.}
Sun 9 At home all day. Read a sermon. Betje rather better
Mon 10 Sandy rode over to Keko brought 6 lbs rice 2 lbs candle
& 2 bars soap, sugar not come yet. Annies box at the floor.
[Annie? box? ]
betje sat up a little today. - began to write home letters
this afternoon.
[Paragraph margin: " Capt Clemes here"]
Tue 11 Writing today. Capt Clemes [?] arrived this evening
Wed 12 [Paragraph margin:" mrs Robeertson Nicholson"]
Capt Clemes left for Bay after breakfast.
Mrs Robertson Johnny N. Miss Morris & Gussy Morris
arrived per Nicholsons wagon abt 10 oclock A.M.
Mr Nicholson arrived this evening. Killed kapater today.
Sandy rode over to Keko to try & get some meal & sugar -
but was unsuccessful.
[Rem: there has been little?/no? use of the word "flour" so
far in the diary.]
Thur 13 Visitors left after breakfast. Sent letters per Mr N. Received
from Keko yesterday per Mr N's wagon , 1 bushel potatoes
& Annie's box from Mr Townsend.
Fri14 Washerwoman left today paid her 5/ [first? mention washerwoman?]
Sandy working in garden.
Sat 15 Kos came back today his account from Mr Townsend for goods
£2.7/" Cash £1."." [columns] £3.7.
[para marg] Kos came back & brought Henrique
[Rem: Townsend - Keko? - acc. Kos's acc?]
Sandy at Keko today, got 6 lbs white sugar - 6 lbs rice -
& part of our own corn back - [ rem: what does this mean?]
Sun 16 At home all day - Weather threatening rain. Went up to
look at the lands. Killed a sheep.
[Rem: "up" is used with ref to lands, Check elevations to see
where lands might have been if "up" was not purely figurative]
Mon 17 Sandy digging up little the garden on the stoep.
Ironing all day. Kos chopping bushes to mend hedge.
[stoep: = verandah. (Afrik) ] [Paragraph margin:"Rain"] Tues 18 Rain splendid rain this morning!! Has continued all day.
bucks [= goats?] all about the house. Ironing.
Wed 19 Still raining even more heavily than yesterday,
bucks almost all day on the stoep. Tonight the rain is pouring incessantly. [marg] Rain
Thur20 Rain not quite so heavy or so constant -
Sent letter to Peter & received first letter from him Fri 21 Fine weather today. Sandy draining off the water from
the garden, Scotys wife here
Sat 22 Sowing seeds in little garden -
Thyme - Mignonette - Sage - Marjoram - Rhubarb -
wild apricots, beet - golden willow - flower seed.
Birdseye chily - radishes
Sun 23 Went up to the farthest away lands.
Smith the roadmaker here borrowing meal
Mon 24 Letter from Keko Mason for medicines.
Sandy went to Keko to see about the goats
found one bag of meal almost empty - & sugar cask
broched - Mason took twelve lbs out of it.
brought letter from Dugald - Miss Findlay - From home -
from Nicholsons Killed a sheep
Tue25 Sandy & Kos started early with the oxen for Keko.
Got a wagon there & arrived with the goods at 12 oclock
3 half [Ammms?]
1 Amber[?]
1 Box tea
1 " candles
1 case sauce [?]
5 cases sundried
1 csk Crushed sugar received open
2 bags rice
And from Nicholsons
1 bag wht rice
2 " corn
2 : meal - 1 of them almost entirely used by Mr Mason -
12 yards Print
1/2 doz stockings

Sandy began to white wash the bedroom after dinner,
& finished it by candle light
Wed 26 Betje & self working all day at the room.
Kos very disobliging & saucy.
Thur 27 Moved into my room today, began to clean
little bedroom. Jeannie diarhea
Fri 28 Working all day at my room, Betje at the
little room. Kos quarelling in the kitchen
Sat 29 Opened 4 cases - 1st large case contained.... 1 box maccaroni - cinnamon - ginger 1 box tobacco - 1 doz table salt -
1 hundred boxes [sic] sardines - 5 bottles capers
2nd small Case -- 26 tins lobsters -
3rd small case --- 6 bottles mustard - 2 bottles Worcester Sauce
4th small case ----10 bottles sweet wine. 5th 1 box candles
Cleaning sitting room & pantry etc
Sent Kos to Keko to ask for letters - got none,
brought 2 bars soap
Sun 30 Mannel here
Mon 31 Killed a sheep. Sandy sowing onions & transplanting cabbages

[Nov 64] Tue 1 Peter returned from Clanwilliam tonight.
Dugald McKellar also arrived from Cape Town
ceck his departure/ last reference]
Wed 2 Von L arrived with cart - McKellars wagon came
with Grant &c. Peter at home all day.
Thur 3 Paid Mc's Malays until today & sent them to the hay.
Grant commenced work.
Tannery [Fanney?] started afternoon.
Peter & McK went on horseback to Keko to
see if the mule left there was ready for tomorrows journey.
returning late Peter while following up the mule at full
speed was thrown from his horse - terribly hurt - passed
a night of great suffering. 9 oclock p.m Kos started for the Dr.
Fri 4 Morning, Peter is a little quiet & we hope - The pain
is excruciating - abt breakfast time he is much worse.
Sinks fast - we are in awfull suspence this morning - only
hope the Dr coming soon. Peter quite prepared for the
worse, & resigned to Gods will - Sandy gave him injections
today & we tryed sponging with water, mustard blister [?] - poultice to alleviate the pain - After midday he rallied a little.
Today he can scar[c]ely speak.
About 1/2 past three P.M. the Dr arrived. He at once bled him.
After which his breathing was much freer & he could speak a
word or two at intervals. - giving him a soothing medicine the
Dr let him rest half an hour & then put a broad bandage
round his chest - gave him a dose of Laudanum Chlorodyne
& Atmonial [?] wine at bedtime & three times during the night.
He had a quiet night - Ludwig & Dugald sat with him.
Sat 5 After mixing Peters medicines & tightening his bandages
the Dr started for the Bay [ He came from the bay?]
Peter a little better though he still has much pain. Afternoon
signs of fever returning - pulse very high - the medicines
seemed to do good for the heat went off a little towards night.
Ludwig & Dugald sat up by turns.
Depass here last night & tonight.
Sun 6 This morning he is much better, still feverish, but nothing
alarming. Afternoon Dr arrived from Bay - Made up new medicine.
Brought kind letter from Mr Nicholson & Mrs Orpen. Killed a sheep
Mon 7 Peter still continues better, Dr put a new bandage on - Gave
him a mixture of tartar emetic Laudanum this morning - to work
against the inflamation, made him very qualmish. Dr left for
Springbok after dinner.
tue 8 Reapers came 5 - Peter much about the same. Sat up till
1 oclock writing letters home tonight - Ludwig sat till morning -
Peter had an easy night. Killed a buck.
Wed 9 Sent letters this morning early to Keko to go per Innes.
Peter still keeping on improving gradually. The Torbets
here this afternoon.
Thur 10 Dr & Arthur Welby [?] arrived this morning. He only
made the bandage right - allowed the Tarter emetic
medicine to be discontinued, but the chlorodyne to be
still taken - to take about two teaspoonsful, brandy in
water occasionally etc. Finding him going on so well
Dr left after dinner for Spectakle. [ dist]
[link etc Dr Collis Brown/chlorodyne etc]
Fri 11 Dugald paid off the reapers tonight. gave him £1.15.
Peter about the same but much troubled with a cough
& headache.
Wrote to Mrs Nicholson about the missing sugar.
Sat 12 Dugald at Keko this morning Cameron peeling bark.
Peter continuing to improve. Gave Cameron a line for 10/-
worth of goods at Keko.
Sun 13 Peter tried to get up today - but found it still too much for him.
Sandy brought up 3 cauliflowers for pickling
Mon 14 Dugald started this morning for [M?]otherfontein with
mule wagon, - Kos & Harry.
Killed kapater. - Sandy all day looking after cattle & mules.
Peter still improving. Cameron not back
Tue15 Wed 16 Thur 17 Dugald started for Bay. Peter getting on well
Fri 18 Peter about the same headache very bad.
Dugald arrived from Riethuis with load salt lime etc.
Wallace & De Pass here this evening. letters from
Mrs Nicholson - Mr Pillans - [m/w]atch [etc?]
Harry returned from Bay. Ludwig at Keko
Sat 19 Sandy came home. Sandy & Dugald riding forage.
Moved the bed to the muiddle of the floor
Cart at the floor today for casks
Sun 20 Peter much better today. Katrina came from
Komaggas - brought letter from Mr[?] Hung.
Mon 21 Killed a kapater - Sent letter to Stetyler [?] about
the sugar. Dugald went on Charlie to Springbok.
Mr Dickson & two sons arrived this evening
Tue 22 Grant & Kos away for bark Ben [illeg] arrived from
Springbok this evening. Dugald returned brought post -
letters from home & Fanny Fryer.
Wed 23 [Bensnasan ?] - & the Dicksons left before breakfast.
[The Dicksons were there there two nights and a day.
Was Keerom a "roadhouse"?]
Sandy & Dugald riding forage. Peter came out to the
front room & the stoep for the first time.
Killed black pig. Shaw & young Mason here
{Not a roadhouse, but in those days travellers expected
accommodation at farm houses along the way. G.R.}
Thur 24 Shaw started for the Bay after breakfast
[Nov 64 above seems OK to here..... Accept provis. ]
[Feint pencil writing can be seen in this section. But no ink reinforcement.]
[Check feint pencil further data till end of Nov. Maybe lucky]
December 1864

Thur 1 [was there anything here?]
Fri 2 Dugald getting meal ground at Keko - 1 muid.
Dr & Mrs Morris arrived afternoon [Dr Cameron? - see below
Sat 3 Dr & Mrs M left after breakfast. [They went to Keko?]
Peter not so well Dr gave him [asperient ?] draught
Sun 4 Bensnan & Small here
Mon 5 Bensnan & Small left . Dr Cameron late from Kekokies.
Dugald left with wagon for Springbok & Motherfontein
[Dr & Cameron ? arrived late from K. Or Cameron was Dr?]
Tue 6 Mr Morris & Wallace came over before breakfast.
Cart left to fetch Miss Wallace
Dr & Mr M left. Mr & Mrs Mason here & children.
Wed 7 Miss Wallace & Dugald arrived afternoon. Bensnan came
Thur 8 Bensnan left. Mr & Miss Wallace left
Fri 9 [? what]
Sat 10 killed a buck
Sun 11 Masons here
Mon 12 Dugald left for Bay with load of skins. Nicholsons arrived
Tue 13 Mrs N's Baby much better today. Nicholsons mule
drowned in the dam
Wed 14 Betje laid up sick. Mrs Ns baby keeping better. Joseph 10/-
Thur 15 Peter not well - Betje rather better. Dugald returned
from Springbok.
Harry the Englishman came [not only Dutch & Scots welcome?]
Fri 16 Peter very feverish took aperient [?] draught. Killed a buck.
Roberts arrived from Springbok
Sat 17 The Nicholsons left. Roberts left. Peter very ill today.
Sun 18 Peter rather better but still in bed - took Rhubarb & Senna -
Mon 19 Peter better but very weak - left abt 5 P.M, to go as far
as Kornhuis. [Peter left to go as far as neighbouring farm on the way to Springbok]
Killed the calf
Tue 20 Cleaning the house. all hands cutting [?]] Dugald at Keko
grinding two muids meal.
Making fig confyt [jam/preserve] Richardson came with dugald
Wed 21 Richardson left on Dugald horse. Cart came for Annie
Thur 22 Annie left for home early this morning. Ironing all day.
Fri 23 Prince came. Killed the cow.
Sat 24 Baking cakes etc. Salting cow.
[in brine? also as biltong - in Dec?]
Peter & Ludwig arrived from Springbok.
[Well enough for Christmas and Hogmanay?]
Sun 25 Christmas
Mon 26 Peter marking bags. Big harry sick.
Tue 27 Ludwig brought 4 lbs coffee from Keko - sent 5 lbs
crushed sugar to Mrs Mason. Peter rode over to
Keko to look for men
Wed 28 pulling figs for confyt
Thur29 Talbot Bowe arrived this afternoon.
Two boys from Keko came to reap.
Fri 30 Went With Bowe to Canariesfontein.
Long[?] Kos here for medicine - making confyt
Sat 31 Talbot Bowe left. Killed malkop buck.
[lit: mal=mad; kop=head]
Hogmanney - my brothers birth day - Finished
the reaping [ also in para margin]

Sun 1 New years day. All of us at home
Mon 2 Preparing to start for Masons mine.
Mr & Mrs Torbet arrived after dinner.
Peter & Von L started afternoon.
Mr T rode over to Keko -
Riding home the harvest today
"Riding home the harvest ...". In southern Africa
"transport riding" was a term in very common usage
for what nowadays is generally referred to as haulage.
Long ago it was mostly done by oxen, which did not get
It would be interesting to know if Agnes' phrase would
have sounded commonplace in Scotland then; or whether it
is not another case of her language becoming localised.
Tue 3 Mr Torbet at Keko untill after dinner when he returned
having settled his affairs. Mrs T spent a very pleasant day.
Ironing,.Mrs Ts servant washing clothes, gave her about
2 lbs soap.
Wed 4 Mr & Mrs T left about 8 A.M. for Springbok with wagon.
finished the stack
Thur 5 Cleaning the house today.
The Nicholsons, Mrs Morris H Welby arrived this evening,
brought post - letter from Mrs Davis & Miss Fryer.
Fri 6 Visitors left. Yesterday & today - Grant & Kos cutting bark
[bank]. Made confyt figs , 4 lb sugar
Sat7 Peter & Ludwig returned this morning. Dugald came [ ]ight.
Gave Dugald 9/- last wednesday
Sun 8 Mr & Mrs Torbet came after breakfast. Mr Jacobs here.
Letter from Mr Judge
Mon 9 Torbet left before breakfast. Dugald started for bay this evening.
Mr Roberts came
[Pencil? starts. Not easy to read.]
Tue 10 Sent letter home per Roberts & D[aga?/Dugal?] wrote[?] pc to Lawrence[?]
[pc=postcard?] Wed 11 Messenger from Mr Judge with letter regarding xxxx.
despatched messenger with letter & map[?]
Harry? & Ghert? killed a porcupine xxxx xxxx.....12lbs coffee....?
Thurs12 Old? Townsend?....from the bay per? post? cart?
Dugald? returned xx xx xx???
Fri 13 Townsend left. Peter went to Buffels river with him.
Katy? & ?? women? here?
Gave Dugald 7/ to pay xxxx xxx.
Ludwig? went to xxxx xxxx Xx xxx xxx
Old Grit xxxxxx xxx x xxx etc
[ends pencil?. Ink starts]
Sat 14 Preparing to start. Washing ironing &cc,
Dugald went for chaff to bosch licefontein [?] Harry away all day.
Sun 15 Read a sermon. Killed a buck
Mon 16 packed the wagon. Started about sundown.
Left the house in charge of McK & Grant.
Slept night near Kekokies.
[A working trip to the coast for the purpose of
marking or surveying the western end of Patrick's
proposed copper route project, work on which
began in 1865? etc
Kekokies was on the existing and hazardous route
which was to be replaced by the new one, part of which included the Messelpad.
In particular this trip might have been to survey or prepare a report on a rail link between the Bay and Riethuis, a section of the route about 2x miles long across sand. The proposed rail scheme was supported by Fletcher who had to present a report to parliament by xxxx date. Check various.]
Tue 17 Breakfast at Keko. Started afterwards & went on to
Abis flats, outspanned, had dinner inspanned went on
to Swartlintjies [sp?] outspanned for the night
Wed18 inspanned abt six A.M. arrived at Riethuis abt 7 ock
spent the rest of the day there & went

[in the same hand, slightly smaller script, ink] June 13 1864
July 18 1864
Aug 13 1864
[ends page]

on to past the Riet
Thur 19 Arrived at the Mouth today
[Check what mouth. In the following section
"the bay" [=Hondeklip?] is spoken of as being
some distance from where they were camped.
But not so distant as the prevent the females
of both places from chatting most days. Check Spoeg river?]
Killed a sheep
Fri 20 Peter went early & got 2 sheep from Koetzee
afterwards went to the bay, returned afternoon with
Messrs Nicholson - Orpen - Tarry =? Wallace
[locate Koetzee, could not have been very far away?] Purchased 2/- worth of Hottentots fish from Old Jantje
Sat 21 Mr & Mrs Torbet here this morning, left abt 11 oclock.
mr & Mrs Aschen here this afternoon.
Von L came over from the bay.
Letter from Mrs Nicholson.
Sun 22 Ludwig went back to the bay.
Wrote to Mrs N. In the wagon all day.
Mon 23 went to the bay, returned afternoon with
Mr Nicholson & Johnny. Mr & Mrs Wallace here.
Moved the wagon up the hill. took a bath today.
["the hill". check further.
"bath today". River or sea?]
Tues 24 Went to look over the line of road, returned afternoon,
Sandy caught lots of crawfish & klip fish. [klip=rock]
Wed 25 Went in to the bay - cart - cart went for rye & soap.
Sandy went to Bay. Bathing today.
Heard that Bokveld is dead. [Bakveld?]
Thur 26 Dugald came, brought letters from home & other letters.
Ghert Cotzee here.[NB . spelling Koetzee, above]
Raining a little today very cold. Went to the bay with
Dugald after breakfast. Dugald left afternoon,
Fri 27 Sandy went to the bay to see after Dugalds wagon.
Went to the bay in the cart, took baby, Jeanie & betje.
left Kos to take care of the wagon.
Went to see Mrs Aschen tonight . Betje went back to
wagon to[ ] 6 lbs meat.
Sat 28 Went with Mrs Nicholson to see Mrs Rich & Mrs Orpen.
[Mrs Rich= Richard Hall's wife? There have been references
to Rich, but he never has been named Hall? yet?

He is first mentioned in diary on 30.7.'63 check. N.F.]
{Sat 28th: Richard Thomas Hall arrived in the country for
the first time in June 1865. (see my Guide to Research).
.Rich. rings a bell . but I can.t find which one! Perhaps it.s just
wishful thinking! G.R.}

Sun 29 Went to church in the forenoon. Mrs Phillips & Miss Grace
called today at Mrs Ns. We all walked on the jetty in
the afternoon
Mon 30 Betje came in to the bay.["in" from where? 6 lbs meat.
Peter & Ludwig commenced working. [On the road plans?]
Spent the day with Mrs Orpen. as we came home took the
children up to see Mrs Rich. ["up"]
Sandy in the bay. //////very stormy day, sea very rough.
Tue 31 Peter & Ludwig working all day. Went with Mrs N. Miss W
& all the children to see Mrs Pillans [?][check Pillans&PcP at Kodas?]
Called at Mrs Rich's as we went home, found her baby very ill,
Mrs N stayed with her. ["we went home" - to the waggon?]
Went after tea to Mrs Phillips & went with her to Mrs Rich's
- the baby abt the same.

Wed 1 Cart came in this morning went this afternoon to see Mrs Aschen.
Left the bay this evening for the wagon. 8 lbs meat
Thur 2 Peter, Sandy & Ludwig working all day in the veld.
Fri 3 All day working. Cart went to the bay for 8 1/2 lbs meat 6 bottles brandy
Sat 4 All day working. Killed a sheep.
Sun 5 At home all day. Ludwig went to the bay. Jacobs & young Mason called.
Mon 6 Shaw here from the bay, Gave Kos 2/6. All day working.
Tue 7 [pencil] Gave Prince 10/ [?]
[pencil illeg]
Wed 8 [semi. illeg.] Went to the bay? to take soundings?
xxxxx the? day? could? not? xxx water?in? the? boat?
Nicholson??? here? xxx xx.. ? from Torbets?? sale?
xxxx ?
[ends pencil illeg. Resumes ink]
Thur 9 McKellar's wagon in brought post Carlisle? wrote of Peter's mother from Lawrence.
Peter & Ludwig in the Bay. fine day, got their work finished there
returned in the evening with Mr Tarry.
["Fine day" suggests that the previous day was not fine; that
they might well have tried to take soundings when conditions
made work impossible]
Fri 10 At home all day. McKs wagon started. Sent letters &
newspapers [?]home.
Sat 11 Peter & Ludwig working all day on the road.
Went in the cart to bay with Jeanie, called in on Mrs Orpen,
Mrs Phillips Miss Grace, & spent the rest of the day with
Mrs Nicholson & Mrs Bow.
Brought meat[check] meal 1/2 muid & chaff.
Sun 12 At the wagon all day. Very high sea.
[Can it be seen it from wagon? Tides?
] Phillips, Tarry, young Mason here afternoon.
Mon 13 Peter & Ludwig went to work after breakfast.
Packed the wagon & started after dinner.
Outspanned before we came to the riet.
Peter & Ludwig came to the wagon.
The beginning of the return eastwards to Keerom.
Agnes refers to "the riet" [lit: the reeds]. Is this a part
of the land there, characterised by a section of reeds,
or does she mean Riethuis [reed house], a particular
place on the inland road? Find Riethuis material]
Tue 14 Peter Ludwig working all day,
Went up to see Mrs Mason ["up" vs riet]
Started from de riet afternoon [foot of page]
[The LHcol of the following page has:]
[new page][Peter's hand? check]

Jacobus Brinkhuis Receid from Mr Wild on his acc ----- £23
1863 From 17 July to 18th March/64 in my service @ £8 - -
(I do not include tobac &c £ 31 - -
1864 On 18th March he got £3 & goes to Springbok £3 - -
balance to date in his favour £: 28

[ends LH col.]

[resumes RH col., from de riet]
outspanned at Naris [ Find on map?]
Wed 15 Peter, Ludwig & Sandy working all day.
Cart fetched this morning from Riethuis meat 9 ?
1 muid rye 4 bottles brandy & 2 bottles frontac.
Roberts passed on his way to the bay.
Thur 16 Worked as far as Riethuis inspanned afternoon
went on to de [riet??].
Kos1 piece calico 1 pce check 1handkerchief [?] 3 reels cotton 2 [??]
hooks & eyes. Joseph 1/2 pc calico - Riethuis
Fri 17 Went on to foot of Keko hill.
Sat 18 Went on the? Keko - came to Keerom on Nelson's cart
Sun 19 Jacobs here. Sandy & Ludwig arrived with cart & horses
Mon 20 Killed a buck. (5 lbs coff[ ] for house)
Tue 21 Hunt & Jan Agenbag here
Wed 22
[The foot of page not fully scanned. There is some writing?]
Thur 23 [....] Joseph 4 bushell corn
Fri 24 Grit making trousers for harry. Preparing to start.
sent Harry for post to Keko
got letters from home, letter from Jura
[First mention of Jura. Agnes uses "from home" as being
from her family.? So Jura would be from the Fletchers.?
] Sat 25 Peter & Ludwig started for Springbok, en route to
Bushmanland to take census ["take" means what?]
Dugalds wagon started with load of skins for the bay.
Harry Driver & Piet 1 1/2 lbs coffee & 1 1/2 lbs sugar for
five days allowance.
[Check gross time for round trip?? Is Dugald a full time
transport rider now?]
[So Harry is the driver with the long whip, and Piet is the leader
in front, often a younger person. They both walk. The leader
might have a riem, (rawhide rope) attached to one or both of the
two front oxen, possibly to nose rings, with which they can be
steered when necessary. Most of the time the oxen knew the way
as well as anybody.
Gave Old Grit 1 lb coffee & 1 lb sugar
Hunt here today. Old Grit went to the river
Sun 26 At home all day. Dugald started to join wagon.
Mon 27 Peter & Ludwig returned this morning, to finish
plans of tramway for Mr Steele
{"More intriguing. Who is Mr Steele please?
(May I say that when the trucks were animal drawn
it was called a "tramway"; when steam traction was used it was called a "railway".)" G.R.}
Killed a kapater
Tues 28 Peter & Ludwig busy with plans

Wed 1 Peter & Ludwig working
Thur 2 Dugald returned from Bay.
[So he caught up with his wagon, went to the
Bay, dealt with skin business? and returned
ahead of his wagon]
Fri 3 Ds wagon arrived from bay.
[Yep. +- five days allowance OK]
Peter writing to Steele. Preparing to start.
Wrote to Mrs Nicholson.
Dugald Ludwig & Sandy at the floor
Sat 4 Peter & Ludwig started for Bushmanland
[foot of page torn/ unscanned]
[March has Sun 5th]
Harry driver & Piet got 14 lbs meal - 2 lbs coffee & 3 lbs sugar
- the coffee & sugar to last a week but they have to get 10 lbs
meal when they return from Springbok
Sent on today [?] for the buck not come yet -
heard that Joseph was at Windkraal
Mon 6 Sandy started early for census
Joseph brought the bucks after breakfast. Killed kapater
Sandy returned at night brought letter from Peter
Tue7 Sandy started early.
Sent Davis's Engineers book to Keko
calculations in pencil.(Check their handwriting.)
From Zimbile there is:
"The Mechanic's, Machinist's and Engineer's/
Practical/ Book of Reference....together with the
Engineer's Field Book". By Charles Haslett.
W.A.Townsend and Company. New York 1859.

On the Table of Contents page, in ink:
"P. Fletcher 14th February 1860"
On the page facing the Index are some arithmetic
calculations in pencil.(Check their handwriting.)
Gave Ghert Prince 1/ worth of coffee, on credit.
Wed 8 Ghert Prince grinding meal. Rock break his leg
Men here from the river to have their names taken -
bought bottle & 1/2 of honey from them for 1/
[Have their names taken for census?]
Thur 9 McK's wagon arrived at sundown. McK returned from
census abt midnight
Fri 10 McK's wagon started for Riethuis. Sent letter to the floor
for post. Harry driver 8 lbs meat 10 lbs meal
Sat 11 McK rode over to Keko
Sandy returned from census
[top of col missing]
arrived from Springbok. Dugalds wagon from Riethuis
Mon 13 Mrs Davis very tired [after] her ride
Harry driver & Piet 2 lbs coffee [ ] sugar- 24 lbs meal [ ]
Wagon started for Springbok
Tue 14 Wed 15 Dr arrived in the night time
Thur 16 Killed kapater. Dr left after dinner. Fredy Davis's birhtday.
Dugald arrived from Springhbok
Fri 17 Mrs Davis. self, Jea[n] Fredy, Peter & Dugald
started early for Kam[aggas] arrived there abt 1/2 past [ ]
[Has she used "self" before?] Sat 18 Left Kammaggas after breakfast.
Very plea[sant] visit - got plenty of gr[ ]
[Who did they visit?]
Sun 19 Mr Davis & young To[rbet?] arrived from Springbok.
Torbet arrived after din[ner] Peter, Davis, Torbet,
started for Springbok
Put old cart in the [st?] Mrs D preparing to [start] tomorrow
[ends page, last line[s] illeg]
[March has Sun 19th]
[new page. LH col seems to follow on]
Townsend on horseback
Tue 21 Killed kapater. Dugald returned later last night.
Mrs d went on to the bay in Torbets cart
Wed 22 Old Grit washing skins & felt [kombes/]
Dugalds wagon started for Riethuis
Thur 23 Drizzeling all day towards evening raining
pretty heavy. Sandy seeking the cows.
Dugald took 1/2 bushell corn to the bark cutters
in the river.
Donkey destroyed half of the pumpkins in
the garden last night
Fri 24 Duglad went to meet his wagon. brought letter
from Peter & home letters
Wagon arrived from Riethuis
Sat 25 Wagon went for chaff. Killed kapater.
Sun 26 Peter Ludwig & Nicholson arrived.
Corn from Keko 1/2 muid
Mon 27 Nicholson left. Dugalds wagon started
for Springbok. Harry & Piet 12 lbs meal
7lbs meat 1 lb coffee 11/2 [last line missing]
Tue 28 Peter & Ludwig busy with Steels plan of railway
{"Tue 28 Peter & Ludwig busy with Steels plan of railway"
Very intriguing. Who is Steel??? I shall appreciate it if
you can let me know anything at all which you may find out
about this. Thank you. Graham. G.R.}
Wed 29 Thrashing
Thur 30 Killed kapater. Dugalds wagon returned
Fri 31 Messenger from O'Okeep with letter from C. C[ edge page] about Namaqualand road
Peter & Ludwig very busy preparing for post
Wrote letters home. Dispatched Harry abt sundo[ ]
Sent O'Okeep messenger abt 3 hrs afterwards

Sat 1 Dugalds wagon away for cha[ff?]
Sun 2 Read a sermon
Mon 3 Started with cart for Kamaggas, en route
Springbok via Spectacle
Dugald started with wagon for Riethuis.
Driver 1 lb coffee 1 1/2 sugar 1 loaf
Tue 4 Killed kapater
Wed 5 Dugald returned from Riethuis. left wagon
at Skilpadmont
Nanny absent since Monday

wagon took rations for men 1 lb coffee 1 1/2 sugar
6lbs meat 2 loafs.
Joseph brought Nanny. Mrs Morris arrived.
[Only April has Frid. 7th] Fri 7 Mr M started early for bay
Sat 8 Peter arrived this morning. brought hat for baby
from Mrs Davis & [ ] from Komaggas
Sun 9 Shaw [?] here (Obees) [?] Read a sermon.
Harry 2 lbs coffee 3 lbs sugar 1 loaf
Mon 10 Killed kapater. Peter & Ludwig very busy
compiling report on roads [ NB..........]
Tue 11 Harry sent to bay with letters to Mr O., Mr P
- Rich &c. Dug[?] Rain
Wed12 Dugalds wagon started for Springbok.
Harry Driver [wagon driver?] 7lbs meat 14 lbs meal
Thur 13 Tarry & Mr Smith here left after breakfast-
Fri 14 Peter & Ludwig very busy finishing -
Cart started this evening
messages from xxxx with letter from Mr Stee [all uncertain]
Dugald arrived late
Sat 15 Peter & Ludwig started abt 5 oclock in the mor [?]
Felt very unwell today, very much afraid
[REM: R.A. was born 6 June '65.]
Sun 16 Sent letter to Mrs ???? by Kamaggas people
here? with bark
Mon 17 Harry driver 2 lbs coffee 4 lbs? sugar
Tue 18 Old Grit Newkirk came
Wed 19 Peter came home. Mannel came
Thur 20 Ludwig arrived with post, English mail
Fri 21 Peter & Ludwig working
Sat 22 Killed kapater. Peter left for Springbok
Sun 23 Old Grit left for Kam[aggas?] Peter returned
Mon 24
Tue25 Mr Weich [?] arrived.
Wed 26 Mr W. left for Springbok
Thur 27 [check this ok april]
[new page left col]
Fri 28 Katrina [ ] Wrote Mrs Weich
Sat 29 Mr W. left. Peter & Ludwig left
Sun 30 At home all day. Dugalds wagon came from Springbok
[ends april 65][accept prov ok]
[Only May begins Mon. 1st]
Mon 1 Killed kapater
Tues 2 Dugald fetched tanning box from Keko
[Tanning box] Wed 3 Boy from Springbok for Nanny left with
Nanny after breakfast
Old Grit arrived Dugald left with wagon for bay.
Thue 4 began to milk starry [?]. Gipsy 12 pups.
Joseph 1/2 bushel corn. Kos grinding. (not very well)
Fri 5 Sandy at Keko. (not well tonight)
Sat 6 Killed kapater. Peter returned from Springbok
via Kamiesberg. Ludwig remained at Kamiesberg.

Keerom homestead

Keerom regained
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Keerom Diary first page
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